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Nasrin Zaer Ghodsi , Mohammad Reza Zolfaghari , Amir Fattah ,
Volume 10, Issue 1 (1-2016)


      Background and Objective: High-intensity interval training (HIIT) is a recently proposed exercise protocol, which is time-effective. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of HIIT for 8 weeks on the lipid profile, C-reactive protein (CRP), fasting blood sugar (FBS) and anthropometric parameters of young women who do not exercise.

     Methods: In this study, 20 young physically inactive women performed HIIT workouts for 8 weeks and 3 sessions per week. The training protocol consisted of 10-times treadmill running for 15 seconds at maximum effort and then 30 seconds of resting. Blood samples were taken while fasting, a day before and after the training and then the considered parameters were measured. Wilcoxon test was used to compare the obtained data.

      Results: HIIT significantly reduced FBS, cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein, high-density lipoprotein /cholesterol ratio and CRP while increasing the HDL levels. There was a significant difference in the weight, body fat percentage, waist circumference, abdominal circumference and chest circumference of the subjects before and after the training (p <0.05).

      Conclusion: HIIT can improve lipid, inflammatory and anthropometric parameters, thus it can be considered as a suitable alternative to time-consuming exercises, especially for physically inactive women who like to spend less time to achieve optimal physical wellness and body fitness.


Amin Farzaneh Hesari , Akram Ebrahimi, Masoumeh Azizi Zanjani , Solmaz Mahdavi,
Volume 12, Issue 1 (1-2018)

         Background and Objectives: Elevated blood lipid levels are correlated with risk of cardiovascular disease, especially in overweight individuals. The beneficial effect of strength training on lipid profile has been well documented. However, the effect of strength training with flow blood restriction has not been established. The purpose of this study was to compare the effect of eight weeks of strength training with and without blood flow restriction on some of the cardiovascular risk factors in overweight females.
         Methods: In this study, 28 overweight females aged 18 to 24 years were randomly assigned into three groups of blood flow restriction strength training (BFRT), traditional strength training (TRT) and control. Participants in the BFRT group performed eight weeks of strength training three sessions per week at 30% of 1-repetetion maximum, while participants in the TRT group performed the training at 65-80% of 1-repetetion maximum. Cardiovascular variables, systolic blood pressure and diastolic blood pressure were measured before and after the exercise training. Data was analyzed using descriptive statistics, paired t-test and one-way analysis of variance.
          Results: Triglyceride level decreased significantly in the BFRT (p=0.022) and TRT (p=0.038) groups compared with the control group. Moreover, there were no significant differences in the body mass, waist-to-hip ratio, body mass index, high-density lipoprotein, low-density lipoprotein, and cholesterol levels between the study groups (P≥0.05).
           Conclusion: Our findings suggest that the BFRT and TRT may not be suitable for preventing or even reversing the physiological changes induced by obesity.
         Keywords: Resistance Training, Lipids, lipoprotein, overweight.

Maryam Lotfi, Mohammad Azizi, Worya Tahmasebi, Parviz Bashiri,
Volume 14, Issue 2 (3-2020)

            Background and Objective: It is desirable for athletes, especially female soccer players, to consume beetroot beverage during training as a way of improving both health and performance ,. Therefore, the objective of this study was to  assess the effect of beetroot juice intake on lipid profile in female soccer players.
            Methods: Young and well-trained female soccer players (N=20) were  included in a randomized placebo-controlled crossover study. They were categorized into two groups: experimental (beetroot beverage, n=10, age: 23.20±0.91 years, BMI: 22.57±1.54(kg/m2)) and control (placebo, n=10, age: 23±0.81 years, BMI: 23.13±0.58(kg/m2)). Subjects drank either 200 ml concentrated beetroot beverage or an equal amount of placebo 2 hours prior to their trainings for six weeks (18 session). Blood samples were taken 24 hours before and after trials. All data were compared in pretest and posttest  via paired sample t-test and independent sample t-test. All statistical analyses were performed at (P≤0.05) by SPSS (version22).
            Results: Beetroot juice intake increased plasma high density lipoprotein (t= -60.88, P<0.05). Triglyceride, total cholesterol, and low density lipoprotein were  reduced (P<0.05). Compared with placebo, beetroot  juice reduced the concentrations of triglyceride, total cholesterol, and low density lipoprotein (P<0.05).
            Conclusion: Regular beetroot juice intake has significant effects on lipid profile in female soccer players, hence its suggestion for preventing diseases such as  hypercholesterolemia and  hypertension in female soccer players.
            Key words: Soccer, Training, Dietary Supplements, Lipids.

Abdolrasoul Hakim Elahi, Rasoul Sharifi, Minoo Mahmoodi, Seyed Mehrdad Kassaee,
Volume 14, Issue 5 (9-2020)

Background and objectives: The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of octopine (phytogenic-derivative of arginine) on antioxidant indices, trace elements and lipid profiles of a mouse model of breast cancer.
Methods: In this study, 48 Balb/c mice were divided into six groups: healthy control, cancer control, cancer group receiving 50 mg of octopine, cancer group receiving 100 mg of octopine and cancer group receiving 150 mg of octopine. The octopine treatment was carried out for three weeks. The 4T1 cell line was used to induce cancer. Fasting blood samples were taken from mice to evaluate lipid profile, copper and zinc levels. Malondialdehyde, superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase activity in breast tumor tissues was evaluated. Data were analyzed by SPSS 18 software using one-way ANOVA and t-test.
Results: Octopine had no significant effect on superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase activity in the treatment group compared with the control cancer group. However, it significantly increased total antioxidant capacity and decreased malondialdehyde activities. Furthermore, treatment with octopine significantly decreased serum zinc, copper, TG, cholesterol and low-density lipoprotein levels but significantly increased high-density lipoprotein compared with the untreated cancer group.
Conclusion: Octopine administration is effective in reducing some oxidative stress indices and improving trace elements abnormalities and lipid profile in mouse models of breast cancer.

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