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Showing 8 results for Nazemi

Mahsa Yazdi, Ali Nazemi, Mir Saed Mir Nargasi, Mr Khataminejad, Sh Sharifi, M Babai Kochkaksaraei,
Volume 4, Issue 1 (Spring - Summer 2010[PERSIAN] 2010)

Abstract Background and objectives: Beta-lactamase enzymes are the most causes of resistance to antibiotics among gram-negative bacteria. Nowadays, Infections due to ESBLs are being increased throughout the world and is considered as a new burden to the health systems. This study aimed at determining the sensitivity pattern of E.coli isolates to beta-lactam antibiotics, and investigating the presence of blaCTX-M, blaTEM, and blaSHV genes in the urine samples. . Material and Methods: In this study, 244 E.coli isolates were screened in 2009-2010. The antibiotic susceptibility of E. coli isolates were determined by disc-diffusion method. Antimicrobial agents tested were cefoxatime, ceftazidime, imipenem, nalidixic acid, and ciprofloxacin. The combined disc test was used to confirm the results. The results were compared to the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI) and ESBL positive isolates were further investigated for the presence of blaCTX-M, blaTEM, and blaSHV genes by PCR. Results: Of 244 E. coli isolates, 116 (47.1%) are resistant to Ceftazidime, and 96 (39.2%) to cefoxatime. Also, 109 (44.3%) isolates are ESBL positive. blaCTX-M, blaTEM, and blaSHV genes are found among 95 (87.1%), 75 (68.8%), and 77 (70.6%) ESBL positive isolates, respectively. Forty (36.6%) isolates have all three genes, while 68 (62.3%) include blaTEM and blaSHV genes. Moreover, 61 (55.9%) isolates carry blaCTX-M and blaTEM genes, and 54(49.5%) have blactx-M and blashv. Conclusion: Regarding the high frequency of resistance to the third generation cephalosporin antibiotics, precise antibiogram testing is highly recommended before any antibiotic prescription in cases of infections with ESBL producing microorganisms. Key words: ESBL Escherichia coli blaCTX-M blaTEM blaSHV.
A Nazemi, M Naderi, M Jafarpour, M Mirinargesi, Sh Sharifi,
Volume 4, Issue 2 (Autumn – Winter 2011[PERSIAN] 2010)

Abstract Bachground and objectives: The ability of adherence to the surface of host cell is very critical in the colonization of microbial pathogens. It has been revealed that E. coli strains that infect urinary tracts have different fimbrea such as I, S, FIC, Dr, and fimbrial adhesions. Material and Methods: In this study, 363 urine samples were obtained from patients with urinary tract infections reffered to clinical laboratories in Western areas of Tehran ,2008-2010 by using biochemical tests,200 samples were confirmed to be E.coli.First, DNA was extracted by boiling method and then the presence of fimbria fim, sfa, pap, foc, and afa genes tested by PCR. Results: In 200 samples, the frequency of fimbria fim, sfa, pap, foc, and afa genes are188 (%94 ), 34 (%17), 20 (%10), 61 (%31) and 71 (%35.5), respectively. Conclusion: The resultes show that FIM ans SFA are the most fimbrial genes of E. coli isolated from urine samples .This information can be valuable in etiology of urinary tract infection (UTI), UTI administration, and making of new vaccines. Key words: Urinary tract infection, fimbria, Uropathogenic E. coli (UPEC)
Jafarpur M, Nazemi A, Mirzaee A, Rahbar Farzamee Hagh S,
Volume 5, Issue 2 (Autumn – Winter 2011[PERSIAN] 2011)

Abstract Background and objectives: Group A Streptococcus (GAS) strains have been identified by serologic methods based on surface protein antigens, T and M. Accordingly, different serotypes have been reported worldwide. Recently, the previous out of date procedures have been replaced by N-terminal emm gene sequence, which has been used in identifying more than 150 emm types. We aimed to determine the prevalence of emm types and phenotypes resistance to erythromycin among streptococci isolated from the throat in north of Iran. Material and Methods: 50 GAS isolates from sore throat of patients referred to a few local hospitals in Tonekabon, Ramsar, and Chalus in northwest of Iran (2010-2011), by using blood agar, bacitracin sensitivity test, PYR test and agglutination by specific antiserum. Antibiotic resistance of the isolates was determined by the discs branded by Iranian Padtan Teb Company, using Kirby Bauer Test, and analyzed by CLSI standards. The mechanism of resistance to erythromycin was evaluated by Double Disk Diffusion Test in the presence of erythromycin and clindamycin. emm gene of all isolates were reproduced and their PCR products sequenced by the Korean Macrogen company. To determine the emm types, using BLAST2.0 program (National Center for Biotechnology Information, available in / BLAST), and the emm gene sequences were compared with sequences in the gene bank. Results: we identified Four different types of emm, including e mm5 (26 52 %), emm12 (12 24%), emm79 (6 % 12) and emm86 (6 % 12). All beta lactam antibiotics have inhibitory effect on isolates, while18% of isolates (9 of 50) are resistant to erythromycin. The most common resistance phenotype is cMLSB (% 66.6) and the next one is phenotype M (% 33.3), but phenotype iMLSB is not observed in none of the isolates. Twelve percent (6cases) of isolates are resistant to clindamycin. Conclusion: The results of present study show different types of GAS than those reported worldwide. The emergences of emm86 in pharyngitis and erythromycin resistance are the two valuable findings of this research. Keywords:Streotococcus pyogenes,erythromycin,cMLSB,iMLSB
M Amiri, S Nazemi, M Raei, R Chaman, P Norouzi,
Volume 7, Issue 3 (Autumn 2013)

Abstract Background and Objective: Parasitic infection is one of the major health problems in the world. This study aimed at comparing the accuracy of two methods of direct examination and Formalin-Ether to detect the presence of parasitic infection among health-card applicants in Shahroud city, 2011. Material and Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted on 801 patients seeking health-card. From each patient, three consecutive stool samples were taken and investigated, using direct examination and formalin-ether method. Results: The use of formalin-ether method in recognizing the parasitic infection specially giardia lamblia and entamobea coli is more than the direct method. Conclusion: The formalin-ether method is a more sensitive method than the direct method. But in circumstances that is urgency to respond or aims to see the shape of trophozoite, the use of direct method is recommended. Keywords: Parasitic Infections Health Card Direct Method Formalin-Ether
A Nazemi, N Vaseghi, M Khatamineja, A Nasrollahi Omran, M Eskandari,
Volume 7, Issue 5 (supplement Issue( Bacteriology)[PERSIAN] 2014)

Abstract Background and Objective: Recognizing and using of isolated phytase in the soil microorganisms are paramount importance to produce the Phytase enzyme utilized commercially in different industries. This study was conducted to recognize different bacillus species which are Phytase producers and detection of the gene that can produce this enzyme. Material and Methods: Soil samples were gathered through different parts of mountainous areas. The early isolation of bacillus was carried out in Bacillus Medium Agar. After isolating the bacteria and genome extraction, the responsible gene of enzyme producer recognized and amplified by PCR method. The size of this protein and the optimal production situation in supplemental exploitation such as SDS-PAGE and the enzymatic activity of its size were evaluated. Results: Of 40 samples, one bacterium secreting Phytase enzyme was isolated. This bacterium was sequenced and recognized Bacillus Sobtlis species that is classified in STR Genus. The size of protein phytase produced by this gene was about 45 KD and the enzyme activity at 55 degrees was measured about 5.65 in wavelength of 415 NM. The phytase gene with the size of 1200 bp was propagated. Conclusion: the microorganisms, in natural conditions, produce Phytase enzyme in limited amount and with the quality appropriate to microorganisms. Thus, isolating the bacilli producing Phytase enzyme and purifying this protein are highly significant. Key words: Bacillus Subtilis Phytase SDS-PAGE Enzymatic Activity Polymerization Chain Reaction
Nasrollahi Omran, A, Nazemi, A, Kihanian, Sh, Aryana , N,
Volume 8, Issue 5 (winter[PERSIAN] 2015)

Abstract Background and Objective: With the development of drug resistance in strains of fungi, there is a considerable resistance of Candida albicans strains to fluconazole. Molecular studies are developing to determine the relationship of such a drug resistance with the increased gene expression of enzymes produced in drug-resistant Candida isolates. We aimed to evaluate the relationship between extracellular lipase gene (LIP8) expression of Candida albicans isolated from candidiasis and sensitivity or resistance to fluconazole. Material and Methods: Drug susceptibility of Candida albicans was performed in oral and vaginal candidiasis to determine the proportion of strains sensitive or resistant to fluconazole using NCCLS method. To evaluate and compare the expression of these genes in the susceptible and resistant strains, RT real-time PCR reaction was used. Results: Of 46 Candida albicans, 20 were susceptible, 12 were semi-susceptible and 14 were resistant to fluconazole. By using PCR reaction, the results showed that the expression of this gene in fluconazole-susceptible isolates was moderate, while it was high in the isolates resistant to fluconazole. Conclusion: The results of lipase gene (LIP8) expression showed that the additional expression of some genes of the enzymes responsible for virulence of Candida may also play a role in resistance to fluconazole. Keywords: Candidiasis, Lipase Gene Expression, RT real-time PCR, Fluconazole
A Raefi, N Nasrollahi Omran, A Nazemi,
Volume 9, Issue 2 (may,jun 2015[PERSIAN] 2015)


Background and Objective: Malassezia yeast is considered lipophilic normal flora of human skin and warm-blooded vertebrates. This fungus is an opportunistic pathogen in causing seborrheic dermatitis. In this study, the yeasts isolated from the crust of the patients with seborrheic dermatitis were identified by PCR-Sequencing.

Material and Methods: In this study, 65 samples of the skin of ear, nose and dandruff were cultured in selective medium Sabouraud agar and modified Dixon agar to prevent dehydration. After biochemical tests, ITS1-4 Universal PCR primers were used to determine the species of yeast.  Obtained PCR products were sequenced for the determination and identification of Malassezia species.

Results: Of nine samples obtained from scalp, four were Malassezia globosa, two Malassezia restricta, two Cryptococcus albidus and one Cryptococcus albidus milis.

Conclusion: The results of Malassezia globosa and Malassezia Restericta are very similar with those in studies elsewhere.

Keywords: Malassezia, Sequencing, Seborrheic Dermatitis, Tonekabon

Nahid Ariana, Ali Nazemi , Ayatollah Nasrollahi Omran,
Volume 9, Issue 4 (sep,Oct 2015 2015)


      Background and objectives: More Candida albicans strains are reported resistant to fluconazole in patients with AIDS, cancer and organ recipients. Fluconazole resistance can be attributed to changes in pathways of sterol biosynthesis, mutation in or overexpression of ERG11 and the expression of CDR1, CDR2, and MDR1. This study aimed to compare the expression of CDR1, CDR2, and MDR1 in C. albicans resistant and susceptible to fluconazole.

       Methods: MIC testing for fluconazole was performed on C. albicans isolates isolated from patients with oral and vaginal candidiasis to determine resistant and susceptible strains. Then real time PCR was performed on the resistant and susceptible isolates and the expression of CDR1, CDR2, and MDR1 was compared in C. albicans.

     Results: Of 46 Candida albicans isolates, 20 susceptible isolates, 12 semi-susceptible isolates and 14 resistant isolates were identified by MIC. After real time PCR was performed, Candida albicans isolates susceptible to fluconazole showed moderate expression of CDR1, CDR2, and MDR1 genes, while resistant isolates showed slight or no expression.

      Conclusion: Increased expression of CDR1, CDR2, and MDR1 had less and insignificant role in resistance to fluconazole.

      Keywords: Candida Albicans, Gene Expression, Real time PCR method

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