Volume 12, Issue 5 (Sep-Oct 2018)                   mljgoums 2018, 12(5): 42-49 | Back to browse issues page


XML Print


Download citation:
BibTeX | RIS | EndNote | Medlars | ProCite | Reference Manager | RefWorks
Send citation to:

Arab A, Mohebbi A, Afshar H, Moradi A. Multi-factorial Etiology of Bipolar Disorder and Schizophrenia in Iran: No Evidence of Borna Disease Virus Genome. mljgoums. 2018; 12 (5) :42-49
URL: http://mlj.goums.ac.ir/article-1-1120-en.html
1- Research Committee, Faculty of Medicine, Golestan University of Medical Sciences, Gorgan, Iran
2- Behavioral Sciences Research Center, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Isfahan, Iran
3- Infectious Diseases Research Center, Golestan University of Medical Sciences, Gorgan, Iran , abmoradi@gmail.com
Abstract:   (3626 Views)

ABSTRACT

            Background and Objectives: Psychiatric disorders such as schizophrenia and bipolar disorder pose a high burden among the general population. Etiological factor(s) of such disorders remain unknown. Borna disease virus (BDV) is a neurotropic virus that has been suggested as an etiological agent for psychiatric disorders. Therefore, we aimed to investigate the prevalence of BDV among patients with schizophrenia and bipolar disorder.
            Methods: Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) of schizophrenic (n=75) and bipolar (n=55) patients and healthy blood donors (n=125) were extracted form whole blood samples. RNA was extracted from PBMCs and the presence of BDV P40 RNA was assessed by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction.
            Results: The BDV genome was not detected in any of the subjects. Positive family history of disease was significantly more frequent among patients (P=0.0001). There was a significant association between contact with animals and psychiatric illnesses (P<0.05). Moreover, education level differed significantly between the two groups (P<0.05).
            Conclusion: The results indicate no evidence of BDV genome among patients with psychiatric disorders. Serological examination for BDV antigens or antibodies could provide further information in this regard. In addition, contact with cats is significantly more prevalent among patients with mental illnesses, which might be due to infection with Toxoplasma gondii.
            Keywords: Borna disease virus, Psychiatric disorder, Schizophrenia, Bipolar disorder, Risk factors.
Full-Text [PDF 528 kb]   (402 Downloads)    
Type of Study: Original Paper |
Received: 2018/08/27 | Accepted: 2018/08/27 | Published: 2018/08/27 | ePublished: 2018/08/27

References
1. Fears SC, Reus VI. Rosenberg's Molecular and Genetic Basis of Neurological and Psychiatric Disease. 2015; 1275-91.
2. Berrettini WH. Are schizophrenic and bipolar disorders related? A review of family and molecular studies. Vol. 48, Biological Psychiatry. 2000; 48(6): 531-8. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0006-3223(00)00883-0 [DOI:10.1016/S0006-3223(00)00883-0.]
3. Smoller JW, Finn CT. Family, twin, and adoption studies of bipolar disorder. Am J Med Genet [Internet]. 2003; 123C(1): 48-58. https://doi.org/10.1002/ajmg.c.20013 [DOI:10.1002/ajmg.c.20013.]
4. Mortensen PB, Pedersen CB, Westergaard T, Wohlfahrt J, Ewald H, Mors O, et al. Effects of Family History and Place and Season of Birth on the Risk of Schizophrenia. N Engl J Med. 1999; 340(8): 603–8. https://doi.org/10.1056/NEJM199902253400803 [DOI:10.1056/NEJM199902253400803.]
5. Yolken RH, Dickerson FB, Fuller Torrey E. Toxoplasma and schizophrenia. Parasite Immunol. 2009; 31(11): 706-15. doi: 10.1111/j.1365-3024.2009.01131.x. [DOI:10.1111/j.1365-3024.2009.01131.x]
6. Uher R. Gene-environment interactions in severe mental illness. Front Psychiatry. 2014; 5: 48. doi: 10.3389/fpsyt.2014.00048. [DOI:10.3389/fpsyt.2014.00048]
7. Cetinkaya Z, Yazar S, Gecici O, Namli MN. Anti-Toxoplasma gondii antibodies in patients with schizophrenia--preliminary findings in a Turkish sample. Schizophr Bull. 2007; 33(3): 789-91. https://doi.org/10.1093/schbul/sbm021 [DOI:10.1093/schbul/sbm021.]
8. Del Grande C, Galli L, Schiavi E, Dell'Osso L, Bruschi F. Is Toxoplasma gondii a Trigger of Bipolar Disorder? Pathogens. 2017; 6(1): 3. https://doi.org/10.3390/pathogens6010003 [DOI:10.3390/pathogens6010003.]
9. Yolken RH, Torrey EF. Viruses, schizophrenia, and bipolar disorder. Vol. 8, Clinical Microbiology Reviews. 1995; 8(1): 131-45.
10. Mazaheri-Tehrani E, Maghsoudi N, Shams J, Soori H, Atashi H, Motamedi F, et al. Borna disease virus (BDV) infection in psychiatric patients and healthy controls in Iran. Virol J. 2014; 11: 161. https://doi.org/10.1186/1743-422X-11-161 [DOI:10.1186/1743-422X-11-161.]
11. Bode L, Reckwald P, Severus WE, Stoyloff R, Ferszt R, Dietrich DE, et al. Borna disease virus-specific circulating immune complexes, antigenemia, and free antibodies - The key marker triplet determining infection and prevailing in severe mood disorders. Mol Psychiatry. 2001; 6(4): 481-91. https://doi.org/10.1038/sj.mp.4000909 [DOI:10.1038/sj.mp.4000909.]
12. Li Q, Wang Z, Zhu D, Xu M, Chen X, Peng D, et al. Detection and analysis of Borna disease virus in Chinese patients with neurological disorders. Eur J Neurol. 2009; 16(3): 399-403. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1468-1331.2008.02516.x [DOI:10.1111/j.1468-1331.2008.02516.x.]
13. Yamaguchi K, Sawada T, Naraki T, Igata-Yi R, Shiraki H, Horii Y, et al. Detection of borna disease virus-reactive antibodies from patients with psychiatric disorders and from horses by electrochemiluminescence immunoassay. Clin Diagn Lab Immunol. 1999; 6(5): 696-700.
14. Shatizadeh-Malekshahi S, Ahmadkhaniha HR, Kiani SJ, Nejati A, Janani L, Yavarian J. No molecular evidence of Borna disease virus among schizophrenia and bipolar disorder patients in Iran. Iran J Microbiol. 2017; 9(2): 112-118.
15. Brnic D, Stevanovic V, Cochet M, Agier C, Richardson J, Montero-Menei CN, et al. Borna disease virus infects human neural progenitor cells and impairs neurogenesis. J Virol. 2012; 86(5): 2512-22. https://doi.org/10.1128/JVI.05663-11 [DOI:10.1128/JVI.05663-11.]
16. Sauder C, Staeheli P. Rat model of Borna Disease Virus Transmission: Epidemiological Implications. J Virol. 2003; 77(23): 12886-90. https://doi.org/10.1128/JVI.77.23.12886-12890.2003 [DOI:10.1128/JVI.77.23.12886-12890.2003.]
17. Herzog S, Rott R. Replication of Borna disease virus in cell cultures. Med Microbiol Immunol. 1980; 168(3): 153-8. https://doi.org/10.1007/BF02122849 [DOI:10.1007/BF02122849.]
18. Nakamura Y, Takahashi H, Shoya Y, Nakaya T, Watanabe M, Tomonaga K, et al. Isolation of Borna disease virus from human brain tissue. J Virol. 2000; 74: 4601-11. https://doi.org/10.1128/JVI.74.10.4601-4611.2000 [DOI:10.1128/JVI.74.10.4601-4611.2000.]
19. Zheng YM, Schäfer MK, Weihe E, Sheng H, Corisdeo S, Fu ZF, et al. Severity of neurological signs and degree of inflammatory lesions in the brains of rats with Borna disease correlate with the induction of nitric oxide synthase. J Virol. 1993; 67(10): 5786-91.
20. Stitz L, Soeder D, Deschl U, Frese K, Rott R. Inhibition of immune-mediated meningoencephalitis in persistently Borna disease virus-infected rats by cyclosporine A. J Immunol. 1989; 143(12): 4250-6.
21. Richt JA, Pfeuffer I, Christ M, Frese K, Bechter K, Herzog S. Borna Disease Virus Infection in Animals and Humans. Emerg Infect Dis. 1997; 3(3): 343-52. https://doi.org/10.3201/eid0303.970311 [DOI:10.3201/eid0303.970311.]
22. Chen CH, Chiu YL, Shaw CK, Tsai MT, Hwang AL, Hsiao KJ. Detection of Borna disease virus RNA from peripheral blood cells in schizophrenic patients and mental health workers. Mol Psychiatry. 1999; 4(6): 566-71. https://doi.org/10.1038/sj.mp.4000568 [DOI:10.1038/sj.mp.4000568.]
23. Waltrip RW, Buchanan RW, Carpenter WT, Kirkpatrick B, Summerfelt A, Breier A, et al. Borna disease virus antibodies and the deficit syndrome of schizophrenia. Schizophr Res. 1997; 23(3): 253-7. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0920-9964(96)00114-4 [DOI:10.1016/S0920-9964(96)00114-4.]
24. Amsterdam JD, Winokur A, Dyson W, Herzog S, Gonzalez F, Rott R, et al. Borna Disease Virus: A Possible Etiologic Factor in Human Affective Disorders? Arch Gen Psychiatry. 1985; 42(11): 1093-6. https://doi.org/10.1001/archpsyc.1985.01790340077011 [DOI:10.1001/archpsyc.1985.01790340077011.]
25. Bode L, Ferszt R, Czech G. Borna disease virus infection and affective disorders in man. Arch Virol Suppl. 1993; 7: 159-67. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-7091-9300-6_13 [DOI:10.1007/978-3-7091-9300-6_13.]
26. Zhang L, Xu M-M, Zeng L, Liu S, Liu X, Wang X, et al. Evidence for Borna disease virus infection in neuropsychiatric patients in three western China provinces. Eur J Clin Microbiol Infect Dis. 2014; 33(4): 621-7. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10096-013-1996-4 [DOI:10.1007/s10096-013-1996-4.]
27. Seyedi SM, Roodbari F, Mohseni M, Hosseini SH, Alaei OR. Molecular Detection of Borna Disease Virus in Patients with Schizophrenia in Mazandaran Province. J Maz Univ Med Sci. 2015; 24(122): 189-99.
28. Xu P, Xie P, Zou D, ZUO L. Detection of the Borna disease virus P24 gene fragment in peripheral blood of patients with psychiatric disorders in China. Chinese J Zoonoses. 2004; 20: 471-3.
29. De la Torre JC, Gonzalez-Dunia D, Cubitt B, Mallory M, Mueller-Lantzsch N, Grässer FA, et al. Detection of Borna disease virus antigen and RNA in human autopsy brain samples from neuropsychiatric patients. Virology. 1996; 223(2): 272-82. https://doi.org/10.1006/viro.1996.0479 [DOI:10.1006/viro.1996.0479.]
30. Bode L. Human infections with Borna disease virus and potential pathogenic implications. Curr Top Microbiol Immunol. 1995; 190: 103-30. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-642-78618-1_7 [DOI:10.1007/978-3-642-78618-1_7.]
31. Nakaya T, Takahashi H, Nakamura Y, Asahi S, Tobiume M, Kuratsune H, et al. Demonstration of Borna disease virus RNA in peripheral blood mononuclear cells derived from Japanese patients with chronic fatigue syndrome. FEBS Lett. 1996; 378(2):145-9. https://doi.org/10.1016/0014-5793(95)01439-X [DOI:10.1016/0014-5793(95)01439-X.]
32. Lipkin WI, Hornig M, Briese T. Borna disease virus and neuropsychiatric disease - A reappraisal. Trends Microbiol. 2001; 9(7): 295-8. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0966-842X(01)02071-6 [DOI:10.1016/S0966-842X(01)02071-6.]
33. Lipkin WI, Briese T, Hornig M. Borna disease virus - Fact and fantasy. Virus Res. 2011; 162(1-2): 162-72. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.virusres.2011.09.036 [DOI:10.1016/j.virusres.2011.09.036.]
34. Waltrip RW, Buchanan RW, Summerfelt A, Breier A, Carpenter WT, Bryant NL, et al. Borna disease virus and schizophrenia. Psychiatry Res. 1995; 56(1): 33-44. https://doi.org/10.1016/0165-1781(94)02600-N [DOI:10.1016/0165-1781(94)02600-N.]
35. Mohammadi Manesh M, Mohebbi A, Yasaghi M, Najafi Memar Z, Javid N, Taziki SA, et al. Low Prevalence of Borna Disease Virus RNA in Patients with Bipolar Major Depression and Schizophrenia in North of Iran. Iran J Virol 2017, 11(2): 8-13.
36. Kishi M, Nakaya T, Nakamura Y, Kakinuma M, Takahashi TA, Sekiguchi S, et al. Prevalence of Borna disease virus RNA in peripheral blood mononuclear cells from blood donors. Med Microbiol Immunol. 1995; 184(3): 135-8. https://doi.org/10.1007/BF00224350 [DOI:10.1007/BF00224350.]
37. Evengard B, Briese T, Lindh G, Lee S, Lipkin WI. Absence of evidence of Borna disease virus infection in Swedish patients with Chronic Fatigue Syndrome. J Neurovirol [Internet]. 1999; 5(5): 495-9. https://doi.org/10.3109/13550289909045378 [DOI:10.3109/13550289909045378.]
38. Hornig M, Briese T, Licinio J, Khabbaz RF, Altshuler LL, Potkin SG, et al. Absence of evidence for bornavirus infection in schizophrenia, bipolar disorder and major depressive disorder. Mol Psychiatry. 2012; 17(5): 486-93. https://doi.org/10.1038/mp.2011.179 [DOI:10.1038/mp.2011.179.]
39. Kim YK, Kim SH, Choi S-. H, Ko Y-. H, Kim L, Lee MS, et al. Failure to demonstrate Borna disease virus genome in peripheral blood mononuclear cells from psychiatric patients in Korea. J Neurovirol. 1999; 5(2): 196-9. https://doi.org/10.3109/13550289909022002 [DOI:10.3109/13550289909022002.]
40. Hagiwara K, Momiyama N, Taniyama H, Nakaya T, Tsunoda N, Ishihara C, et al. Demonstration of Borna disease virus (BDV) in specific regions of the brain from horses positive for serum antibodies to BDV but negative for BDV RNA in the blood and internal organs. Med Microbiol Immunol. 1997; 186(1): 19-24. https://doi.org/10.1007/s004300050041 [DOI:10.1007/s004300050041.]
41. Liu X, Bode L, Zhang L, Wang X, Liu S, Zhang L, et al. Health care professionals at risk of infection with Borna disease virus - Evidence from a large hospital in China (Chongqing). Virol J. 2015; 12(1): 39. https://doi.org/10.1186/s12985-015-0239-y [DOI:10.1186/s12985-015-0239-y.]
42. Ochoa S, Usall J, Cobo J, Labad X, Kulkarni J. Gender differences in schizophrenia and first-episode psychosis: a comprehensive literature review. Schizophr Res Treatment. 2012; 2012: 916198. doi: 10.1155/2012/916198. [DOI:10.1155/2012/916198]
43. Cardno AG, Owen MJ. Genetic relationships between schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, and schizoaffective disorder. Schizophr Bull. 2014; 40(3): 504-15. https://doi.org/10.1093/schbul/sbu016 [DOI:10.1093/schbul/sbu016.]
44. Craddock N, O'Donovan MC, Owen MJ. The genetics of schizophrenia and bipolar disorder: dissecting psychosis. J Med Genet. 2005; 42(3): 193-204. https://doi.org/10.1136/jmg.2005.030718 [DOI:10.1136/jmg.2005.030718.]
45. Laursen TM, Labouriau R, Licht RW, Bertelsen A, Munk-Olsen T, Mortensen PB. Family history of psychiatric illness as a risk factor for schizoaffective disorder: A Danish register-based cohort study. Arch Gen Psychiatry. 2005; 62(8): 841-8. https://doi.org/10.1001/archpsyc.62.8.841 [DOI:10.1001/archpsyc.62.8.841.]
46. Wensman JJ, Jäderlund KH, Holst BS, Berg M. Borna disease virus infection in cats. Veterinary Journal. 2014; 201(2): 142-9. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tvjl.2013.12.012 [DOI:10.1016/j.tvjl.2013.12.012.]
47. Wensman J. Borna disease virus and its hosts. 2011; 1652-6880.
48. Hilbe M, Herrsche R, Kolodziejek J, Nowotny N, Zlinszky K, Ehrensperger F. Shrews as reservoir hosts of borna disease virus. Emerg Infect Dis. 2006; 12(4): 675-7. https://doi.org/10.3201/eid1204.051418 [DOI:10.3201/eid1204.051418.]
49. Flegr J. Predictors of Toxoplasma gondii infection in Czech and Slovak populations: The possible role of cat-related injuries and risky sexual behavior in the parasite transmission. Epidemiol Infect. 2017; 145(7): 1351-62. https://doi.org/10.1017/S095026881700019X [DOI:10.1017/S095026881700019X.]
50. Gregorio J De, Lee J-W. Education and Income Inequality: New Evidence From Cross-Country Data. Rev Income Wealth. 2002; 48(3): 395-416. https://doi.org/10.1111/1475-4991.00060 [DOI:10.1111/1475-4991.00060.]
51. Gibb SJ, Fergusson DM, Horwood LJ. Burden of psychiatric disorder in young adulthood and life outcomes at age 30. Br J Psychiatry. 2010; 197(2): 122-7. https://doi.org/10.1192/bjp.bp.109.076570 [DOI:10.1192/bjp.bp.109.076570.]
52. Fergusson DM, Boden JM, Horwood LJ. Recurrence of major depression in adolescence and early adulthood, and later mental health, educational and economic outcomes. Br J Psychiatry. 2007; 191(OCT.): 335-42. https://doi.org/10.1192/bjp.bp.107.036079 [DOI:10.1192/bjp.bp.107.036079.]

Add your comments about this article : Your username or Email:
CAPTCHA code

Send email to the article author


© 2007 All Rights Reserved | Medical Laboratory Journal