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Showing 11 results for Smoking

F.ghahremanei (phd), H.ghaem (phd),
Volume 7, Issue 2 (10-2005)

Background&Objective: The infertility and its psycological problems can be considered as one of the important difficulties among married couple. Nearlly half of the infertility related to the men. This study was set up to determine the most common risk factors of male infertility in men attending infertility clinics in Shiraz. Materials&Methods: A case – control study was conducted in which 268 men. 161 fertile men were compared with 108 infertile men from the point of risk factors such as smoking habits, drug consumption, hernia, varicocele, job and BMI. Results: Logestic regression analysis, Risk estimate (adds Ratio), and t-test demonstrated that hernia, varicocele, ranitidine consumption, Job and BMI all have statistically significant associations with infertility in men. Odds Ratios of 2.5 for hernia, 4 for varicocele, 2.9 for ranitidine consumption, 2.3 for workers (simple, semiskilled and skilled), t=3.5 (P<0.05). With an increase of one cigarette per day there was decrease 1% in motility of sperm .With an increase of one year of cigarette smoking, the number of sperm was decrease about 800000. The BMI in infertility men was <25. Conclusion: This study showed that the most common factor in men infertility in Shiraz are varicocele and hernia and hard works can cause testicular injury.
K.ghoddousi (md), J.ameli (md), Ar.saadat (md), V.pourfarziani (md), F.najafipoor (md), Ghr.karami (md), Mm.sharifi (md),
Volume 8, Issue 2 (7-2006)

Background & Objective: Dyslipidemia and smoking are among the most important medical problems in human society. Their share in the mortality of coronary heart disease (CHD) has led to multiple investigations about them. This study was done to determine the prevalence of dyslipidemia and the effect of cigarette usage on it. Materials & Methods: This epidemiological cross-sectional study was carried out on 9632 persons selected randomly in Tehran urban with a minimum age of 20 years and over. We measured fasting blood sugar, blood sugar 2 hours after 75 grams oral glucose, triglyceride, total cholesterol, LDL cholesterol, HDL cholesterol. Degree of physical activity was registered according to Lipid Research Clinics classification. Anthropometrics data, social condition, family history and smoking exactly delineated. Our patients were divided into: those having normal lipid profile and primary dyslipidemia (without any risk factor for dyslipidemia) and secondary dyslipidemia (having one or more risk factors such as diabetes mellitus). ANOVA, t.test, and logistic were used to analyze the level of significance. Results: Our population sample consisted of 5619 female and 4013 male. 68.5% of our cases had dyslipidemia. 65.8% of females and 72.3% of males had at least one type of dyslipidemia. There were 1085 smokers (11.4%) that 73.2% of them were dyslipidemic. With comparing smokers to nonsmokers shows that in smokers HDL.cholesterol, LDL.cholesterol and total cholesterol had decreased and triglyceride increased (p<0.05). Conclusion: Tehran population suffers from dyslipidemia. Large number of secondary dyslipidemia and smoking highlighted the importance of education to overcome to these preventable and modifiable factors.
Ali Reza Mofid (md), Seyyed Ahmad Seyyd Ali Naghi (md), Saeed Zandiyeh (md), Tahereh Yazdadi (md),
Volume 11, Issue 3 (10-2009)

Background and Objective: Erectile dysfunction (ED) is the most neglected complications of diabetes mellitus that reduce the quality of life. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the erectile dysfunction and related risk factors in diabetic patients. Materials and Methods: This descriptive analytical study was done on 700 diabetic men aged 20-69 years at Sina hospital and Abouzahr Health Center in Tehran- Iran during 2002-03. Patients were screened for erectile dysfunction using the International Index of Erectile Function (IIEF) questionnaire. Data were analyzed using SPSS software and Chi-Square test the P≤0.05 was considered to be significant. Results: Prevalence of erectile dysfunction was 35.1%. Prevalence rate of erectile dysfunction was 25.8% and 36.7% in type 1 and type 2 diabetic patients, respectively (P<0.05). Prevalence of mild, moderate and severe erectile dysfunction were 5.6%, 19.6% and 10%, respectively. Prevalence of erectile dysfunction reached from 9.7% in men aged 20-30 years to 35% in those aged over 60 years (P<0.05). In comparison with reporting diabetes lasting≤5 years (25.4%), prevalence of erectile dysfunction was less than those reported diabetes 6-11 years (34.3%) and 12-30 years (43.5%) (P<0.05). Erectile dysfunction increased significantly in those who had poor glycemic control. Prevalence of erectile dysfunction in good, fair and poor glycemic control was 28.4%, 39% and 44.4%, respectively (P<0.05). Conclusion: This study showed that good glycemic control and reducing the cigaret smoking are necessary to reduce prevalence of erectile dysfunction in diabetic men.
Asayesh H (msc), Qorbani M (msc), Salary H (md), Mansorian M (msc), Safari R (bsc),
Volume 12, Issue 4 (12-2010)

Background and Objective: Substance abuse is a major concern all over the world. Due to some individual, familial and social factors the identification of related factors can help us to design a more effective strategies for the prevention of drug abuse. This study was performed to evaluate the relation between individual and familial characteristics with substance abuse tendency in self-introduced addicts. Materials and Methods: This case control study was done on 120 addicted subjects referred to addiction clinic of 5Azar hospital, Gorgan, North of Iran and 120 matched non-addicted subjects were considared as controls. Data collections were performed by questionnaire and interview. Data analyzed with using T-test, Chi-Square and logistic regression. Results: Univariate analysis showed that high school (OR=4.63, 95%CI: 1.78-12.02) and high school graduate subjects (OR=15.5, 95%CI: 4.9-50) showed higher tendency toward addiction compared to university educated people. History of substance abuse in friends (OR=7.33, 95%CI: 4.09-13.13) and previous and present cigarette smoking (OR=12.35, 95%CI: 6.65-22.93) increased abuse tendency. Permanent employment decreased abuse tendency (OR=0.109, 95%CI: 0.05-0.22) compared to temporary job. Conclusion: This study showed that addicted friends, cigarette smoking, low level of education and temporary job increase drug abuse tendency.
Hajian K (phd), Khirkhah F (md), Habibi M (md),
Volume 13, Issue 2 (7-2011)

Background and Objective: The safety of teenagers and young are the major factor in developing a community and they are also the major group at risk of behavioural problems. So, this study was performed to evaluate the prevalence of risky behaviours among different university students in Babol, located in Norther of Iran.

Materials and Methods: This cross sectional study was carried out in a random sample of Babol university students including medical university, university of engineering and Azad University with roughly equal sampling ratio with respect to university and gender. The data was gathered by a designed questionnaire including demographic characteristics, physical involvement with others (violence), cigarette smoking, drug abuse, physical inactivity, overweight and obesity. In statistical analysis the Chi square test was used to determine the association of risky behaviours with demographic characteristics.

Results: The results revealed that in general the prevalence of physical involvement with others (violence) during a recent year was 33.3% current cigarette smoking 13.7%, overweight and obesity 25.6%, physical inactivity 15.3% and drug user during recent year 0.3%. In general, the prevalence of some risky behaviour was more in boys than girls (P<0.001), and it was more in single than married (P<0.001) and in residence of dormitory and rented houses than personal houses (P<0.001) and also in engineering and Azad university in contrast to medical university (P<0.001). For example, the prevalence of cigarette smoking was 25.7% in boys and 3.6% in girls (P<0.001).

Conclusion: This study showed a rather high frequency of risky behaviours among students in Babol city in North of Iran.

Alavi Sm (md), Ahmadi F (md), Zargari N (md),
Volume 14, Issue 2 (6-2012)

Background and Objective: Risk factors of tuberculosis vary in communities according to different socioeconomic conditions. Knowing these risk factors help to control the disease. This study was done to determine the main risk factors of pulmonary tuberculosis acquisition in hospitalized patients. Materials and Methods: In this data based, case-control study 173 tuberculosis patients (as cases) and 305 non tuberculosis patients (as controls) hospitalized in Razi hospital in Ahvaz, Iran during 2001-07 were gone under investigation. Risk factors included injecting drug addiction, smoking, HIV infection, diabetes mellitus, imprisonment and corticosteroid usage. Data were analyzed using SPSS-13, Chi-Square and Fisher exact tests. Odds ratio was determined for risk factors. Results: Frequencies of the main risk factors in case and control groups were as: smoking 54.3%, 14.8% (p=0.0001, OR: 6.5), HIV infection 11.5%, 3% (p=0.0002, OR: 4.3), injecting drug addiction 18%, 3.3% (p=0.0001, OR: 6.7), diabetes mellitus 22.5%, 5.9% (p=0.0001, OR: 4.6) and imprisonment 20.2%, 3.9% (p=0.0001, OR: 6.2), respectively. Corticosteroid use and renal failure were similar in cases and controls. Conclusion: This study showed that smoking, HIV infection, injecting drug addiction, diabetes mellitus and imprisonment were the main risk factors for tuberculosis acquisition in this region.
Baheiraei A (phd), Banihosseini Sz (msc), Heshmat R (phd), Mohsenifar A (phd),
Volume 14, Issue 2 (6-2012)

Background and Objective: Passive smoking during pregnancy increases the risk of pregnancy complications. The purpose of this study was to determine the relationship between self-reported exposure to passive smoking and urinary cotinine level of the pregnant women. Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional study was done on 108 non-smoker pregnant women referred to Arash hospital in Tehran, Iran for delivery during 2010. A questionnaire including smoke exposure during pregnancy was completed for all the participants. Urine samples were collected from the mothers in the delivery room. The urinary cotinine levels was measured by ELISA method. Data were analyzed using SPSS-16, Student t-test, Chi-Square and one-way ANOVA tests. The Kappa test was used to evaluate the variability of mothers which report exposure to passive smoking with maternal urinary cotinine level. Results: The geometric mean cotinine of the maternal urine in the exposed group (27.4±29.96 ng/ml) was significantly higher than the non-exposed group (0.75±2.29 ng/ml) (P<0.05). There was a significant association between maternal reports of cigarette smoke exposure and urinary cotinine (Kappa=96%) (P<0.05). Conclusion: This study indicated that there is a relationship between maternal self-reporting and urinary cotinine level during pregnancy.
Iranmanesh F , Salehi M, Bakhshi H , Arab R,
Volume 15, Issue 1 (3-2013)

Background and Objective: The silent brain infarctions are common in first-ever stroke. Some recent studies show the possible role of silent brain infarction in ischemic stroke. The aim of this study was to evaluate the frequency of silent brain infarction in acute first-ever ischemic stroke and its association with stroke risk factors. Materials and Methods: This descriptive - analytical study was carried out on 203 (94 males, 109 females) patients with acute first-ever ischemic stroke in Shafa hospital in Kerman, Iran during 2010. The diagnosis of ischemic stroke was made by physical examination and was confirmed by MRI and CT Scan. A questionnaire containing demographic information and risk factors including hypertension, diabetes, hyperlipidemia, cigarette smoking, ischemic and non-ischemic heart disease for stroke as well as presence of silent stroke was completed for each patient. Data were analyzed using SPSS-16 and logistic regression test. Results: The mean age of patients was 62.56±17.35 years. Among our patients history of hypertension, hyperlipidemia, cigarette smoking, diabetes, history of ischemic heart disease, history of other cardiac disease and silent stroke were observed in 66 (32.5%), 26 (12.8%), 16 (7.9%), 40 (19.7%), 27 (13.3%), 16 (7.9%) and 31 (15.3%), respectively. The probability of silent stroke among patient with hyperlipidemia, was 3.7 times more than those without hyperlipidemia (95%CI: 1.556-12.780, P<0.05). There was no significant correlation between silent stroke and the above risk factors. Conclusion: Silent stroke was found in 15% of patients with ischemic stroke. Control of hyperlipidemia can have a vital role in the prevention of silent stroke.
Nesar Hosseini V, Taghipour M, Sharifian R , Hamta A, Feyzi S,
Volume 15, Issue 4 (12-2013)

Background and Objective: Coronary artery diseases are one of the main causes of mortality and morbidity. This study was done to determine the prevalence of risk factors for coronary artery diseases in patients referred to angiography center in Sari, Northern Iran. Materials and Methods: This descriptive study was performed on 2540 patients referred to angiography center in Sari city, northern Iran, during 2005-10. Risk factors including diabetes, hypertension, hyperlipidemia, smoking, Family history, CRP and also ECG changes, type and number of involved artery and the severity of vascular involvement were recorded for each patient. Results: Hypertension, hyperlipidemia, diabetes, smoking were seen in 40.8%, 40.5%, 29.1%, 12.5% of patients, respectively. Positive family history and CRP were found in 10% and 3.4% of the patients, respectively. 23.8% of patients had abnormal ECG. One, two and three vessel diseases were observed in 26.5%, 48.3%, 48.3% of cases, respectively. Left anterior descending artery constriction was seen in 75.8% and 80.4% of males and females, respectively. A significant relationship was found between diabetes and left coronary circumflex (P<0.04) and left anterior descending artery (P<0.03) constriction. Conclusion: Diabetes, hypertension, hyperlipidemia, smoking, family history, abnormal ECG are among the risk factors of coronary artery diseases in this area.
Adineh Ha, Motametdi B, Veisi M, Bagheri S,
Volume 16, Issue 2 (7-2014)

Background and Objective: Failure of tuberculosis (TB) treatment is a major problem of health systems in developing countries. This study was done to identify the Risk factors of tuberculosis treatment failure in the Sistan and Bulochestan province, the high risk region in South-East of Iran. Methods: This case – control study was carried out on 52 tuberculosis patients (smear -positive and category- I therapy) treated during six months period. Patients with treatment failure were considered as cases and patients with negative smear after 6 months of treatment with anti-tuberculosis (TB) medicines were considered as control group. Demographic, clinical and treatment outcomes were recorded for each patient. The multivariate logistic regression was performed to determine the predictors of treatment failure. Results: Family history of tuberculosis (95% CI: 1-12.56, OR=3.55, P=0.04,), smoking (95% CI:1.58-51.21, OR=9, P=0.01), drug addiction before or during the treatment period (95% CI: 5.28-123.91, OR=25.6, P=0.0001) and low body weight (95% CI:1.05-12.6, OR=3.65, P=0.04) were risk factors for treatment failure. Conclusion: Family history of tuberculosis, weight loss during treatment, smoking and drug addiction, were considered as risk factors for treatment failure in National Tuberculosis Control Programme (NTCP) in south-east of Iran.
Gr Sharifirad , Ar Charkazi , K Mirkarimi , Ns Seyyedghasemi , H Shahnazi , F Hajili Davaji , Ah Mirzaali ,
Volume 18, Issue 3 (10-2016)

Background and Objective: Smoking is one of the important risk factors for many diseases and increases the premature death.Transtheoretical models is one of the behavioral models for behavior understanding specifically in addictive behaviors. This study was done to evaluate the application of transtheoretical model to determination of smoking behavior among smokers.

Methods: This descriptive - analytical study conducted on 450 male smokers in Gorgan, northern Iran during 2014. Data gathering instruments were Diclemente smoking stages of change, Velicer decisional balance and temptation, Prochaska processes of change measurements along Fagerstrom test for nicotine dependency.

Results: Based on the stages of changes, 39.1%, 13.8%, 42.4%, 2.7% and 2% of subjects were in precontemplation, contemplation, preparation, action and maintenance stage, respectively. There was a significant relationship between stages of change with all transtheoretical model variables and nicotine dependency (P<0.05). Cons of smoking, self-reevaluation, self-liberation, and social liberation had the highest effect while helping relationship had the lowest effect.

Conclusion: Cons of smoking, self-reevaluation, self-liberation, and social liberation had the strongest predictors of smoking stages movement. Helping relationship had the lowest predictor of smoking stages movement.

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مجله دانشگاه علوم پزشکی گرگان Journal of Gorgan University of Medical Sciences
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