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Showing 197 results for Rat

Azarhoush R (md),
Volume 1, Issue 1 (3-1999)
Abstract

The amount of stainable Iron in the bone marrow is frequently used as a means of assessing Iron stores. In our study marrow Iron assessed in needle biopsy sections and simultaneously obtained aspirated smears from 75 patients. Significantly different amounts of stainable Iron were observed in needle biopsy and aspirated smears in 53.3% of the specimen. The usual difference consisted of significantly less stainable Iron in needle biopsy sections as compared to the aspirated smears (49.3%). In according to this study, in comparison of needle biopsy section to aspirated smears (As a golden test), sensitivity and specificity were 88 and 64 percent, respectively. Also, positive and negative predictive values were 56.5 and 91%, respectively. It can be appreciated that marrow assessment of Iron content may be associated with distinct differences between the needle biopsy specimens, and the aspirated smears, and could lead to diagnostic error, although, with some limitations and cautions biopsy specimen can be used for Iron assessment.
V.kazeminejad (m.d), R,azarhoosh (m.d), F.nadali (m.d),
Volume 2, Issue 2 (9-2000)
Abstract

The cancer of breast is the most common malignancy among women and after cancer of the lung is the second cause of death in females. Thus, early diagnosis and treatment can have a effect significant in prognosis and clinical course of disease. One of the numerous controversial tissues to the clinical management of breast cancers is the role of fine-needle aspiration (FNA) to assess the accuracy and determine the role of FNA in breast cancer diagnosis, we performed both FNA and excisional biopsy in 86 unselected patients with palpable breast masses and correlated the cytologic and histopathologic findings. In our study, FNA had no false-negative and no false-positive results, and the sensitivity of diagnosis of malignant tumors was 88.8%, the specificity of diagnosis of benign lesions was 96.2% and the predictive values were 100%, respectively. On the basis of above study, breast FNA may add a measure of confidence in the diagnosis of benign lesions, provides a safeguard for preventing misdiagnosis of malignant lesion, and might expedite and reduce the cost of managing breast cancer. Also, breast FNA like any diagnostic method depends to individual techniques and continual practice.
Aa Abdollahi (msc), B.arya (m.d), M.j.golalipour (ph.d), M.a.vakili (m.sc),
Volume 3, Issue 2 (9-2001)
Abstract

Pain is a symptom of disease and most diseases accompanied with pain, specially among hospitalized post-operative patients. Several drugs and routes of administrations have used for post operative pain control. We compared post op analgesic effects of Diclofenac suppository to intramuscular Pethedine in post op inguinal herniorrhaphy patients. This study is a clinical trial on 40 patients who were operated due to unilateral inguinal herniorrhaphy. They divided into two groups incidentally. In Diclofenac Na group each patient received 100 mg Diclofenac Na supp every 8 hours. In Pethedine group each patient received 0.5 mg/kg Pethedine, intramuscularly. Pain severity of the patients controlled for 24 hours with visual comparation method and mean pain severity compared among 2 groups in the first 24 hours. Mean pain severity difference of Pethedine groups patients compared to Diclofenac Na group was 6.10 with standard error of 3.57 with (P<0.212) had no meaningful difference during first post operative phase. We concluded that Diclofenac Na is a suitable substitute of 24 hours intramuscular Pethedine for post op pain relief.
D.qujeq,
Volume 4, Issue 1 (3-2002)
Abstract

3 Beta-Hydroxy-delta-5-steroid dehydrogenase is an important key enzyme of steroid hormone biosynthesis, which is involved in catalyzing the conversion of pregnenolone to progesterone in the biosynthesis of steroid sex hormones. This is the fourth enzyme in the steroid hormone biosynthesis pathway to be identified as an autoantigenic target. Pregnenolone is incubated with several concentrations of whole testis homogenate. The reaction mixture containing the pregnenolone, NAD and iodonitrotetrazolium in 0.15 M Tris-HCL buffer (pH=7.7) and the enzyme extract from testis of rat was incubated for 1.5 h at 36°C. Absorbance at 495 nm was determined by a spectrophotometer. pH optimum and time incubation for this enzyme was 7.99 and 1.5 h respectively. The Kmax was 5.3×10^-6 and Vmax was 3.11×10^-6 nmol/mg/min. Our results were in good agreement with those reported previously.
Sh.kolakari (m.sc), A.sanakoo (m.sc), F.mirkarimei (m.sc), N.behnampour (m.sc),
Volume 4, Issue 2 (9-2002)
Abstract

Stress is applied to the collection of somatic, emotional and mental reaction, which can disturbed the equilibrium in human beings. One type of stress is work in dependent stress environment, which can affects on personnel due to its internal stressful factor. The object of this research is to investigate the rate of stress in operating room personnel and its relationship with some relevant factors. The present study has been done on 104 personnel of operating room in hospitals belong to the Gorgan Medical Sciences University. The tools for collection data were questionnaire, which contained demographical variables, physical and mental environment stress factors in operating room life stress scale. The results from this investigation indicated that 54.4% of all personals had a mild stress. The stress factors present in the operation room were inconvenient smells the highest with 76% uncooperated team work was the other factor with 29.7% and personnel equipment was (42.6%) it become clear from this investigation that there is a reverse between stress and demographical variables, of stress has a meaningful relationship with age (P=0.01) and years of service in the operation room which means as the age and working in the operation room increased the level of stress decreased. According to the results from this investigation it is suggested therefore to use the old and well-experienced staff to work in the operation room to avoid such problems.
H.karimi-Moneghi (m.sc), A.drakhshan (m.d), N.valaei (m.sc), F.mortazavi (m.sc),
Volume 5, Issue 2 (9-2003)
Abstract

Background & Objective: One of the most important principles in education is adopting a teaching method in concordance with objectives, contents and learners. Teaching and learning clinical skills is a challenging aspect of education in field of medicine and allied health profession. Some of the new researchers have shown that video-based instruction has many advantages in comparative to others. But in the domain of the psychomotor learning there is not enough evidence to show that video-based instruction is an effective teaching method. The current study has compared students learning in video-based and demonstration methods. Materials & Methods: An experimental study was conducted on 40 first year nursing and midwifery students. The students were randomly assigned to case (N=20) and control (N=20) groups based on the their course. The data were collected from a pre-test, a post-test and a questionnaire for demographic information. Pre-test was given 24 hours prior to the presentation sessions. Then each group has received one skill with video-based and another skill with demonstration. Skills included the dressing changing and surgical hand washing. After 24 hours post-test was taken with previous criteria. The differences between the pre-test and post-test scores were considered as they are at learning level. Results: The overall learning in the demonstration method was higher than the video-based method (P<0.05). However the scores of students in 2 methods was at acceptable level. The scores of students in the cognitive domain of hand washing by the demonstration were 16.20±1.5 and by the video-based method were 15.25±1. The scores of students in the psychomotor domain of hand washing by the demonstration was 16.85±1.4 and by the video-based method was 15.94±1.4 (P<0.05). The scores of students in the cognitive domain of dressing change by the demonstration was 25.60±1.8 and by the video-based method was 15.50±1. The scores of students in the psychomotor domain of dressing change by the demonstration was 16.78±1.3 and with the video-based was 16.12±1 (P<0.05). Conclusion: The results indicated that demonstration method is more effective in the students learning. However, both video-based and demonstration have led to the high level of cognitive and psychomotor learning. It could be concluded that video-based instruction can be an effective method for replacing the demonstration, especially when there is not access to demonstration, in addition according to the findings, video-based education is a effective methods for transporting knowledge, information and other topics in the cognitive domain. Therefore, considering the cost-effectiveness of video-based instruction and its ease of use, this method can facilitate education in where lack of experienced instructors and equipment is most pronounced.
A.abassi (m.d), M.aarabi (m.d),
Volume 6, Issue 1 (3-2004)
Abstract

Background & Objective: About 1.3 billions people are infected with Tuberculosis (TB) all over the world. There is a close relationship between the quality of TB treatment and the rate of drug resistance. The recurrence epidemy of TB and increased resistance to some drugs was the basis for the WHO to suggest the directly observed short course treatment strategy or (DOTS) strategy, for the TB patients. Materials & Methods: This research was a cohort study and aimed to evaluate the epidemiological finding, the clinical basis and strategy of DOTS on improving, and prevention from failure of treatment and was compared with non-DOTS procedure. Sample population were total of 260 smear positive patients that had been under study for a period of 2 years (1999-2000). All of the patients were new cases. SPSS software and Fisher exact test was used to analyzed the data. Results: The rate of treatment failure in DOTS strategy in the beginning of 5th month was 1.7%, but in the control group the failure in the same period was 7.3% (P<0.05). Conclusion: This study indicated that the DOTS strategy is substantially increasing the success rate of TB treatment.
A.shafiei (m.d), P.ghadirian (m.d),
Volume 6, Issue 1 (3-2004)
Abstract

Background & Objective: One of the post-operational problems in the cesarean-section is ileus symptoms and the starting point of taking the liquid diet. Some controversy are about this procedures. This study was done to evaluate the rate of ileus symptoms of women who are offered oral hydration shortly after cesarean delivery. Materials & Methods: This study involved 276 women delivered by cesarean under general anesthesia that had no previous cesarean or laparotomy and indisposing and their operations had not been exceeded 90 minutes. For these patients a liquid diet for every other day, partly 6 hours and others 12 hours after operation was started. The patients were examined at the time of starting diet and 6 hours later for bowel sound, nausea or vomiting, abdominal distention and gas passage. 138 women were assigned to each procedure. Results: Nausea or vomiting cases in the early fed group, were more than 12 hourly diets (2.2% versus no case) and (12.3% versus 10.9%) but the difference was not statistically significant. The bowel sound in the early fed group were less than 12 hourly starting the diets, (15.2% versus 12.3%) the difference was not statistically significant. The 6 hourly starting of liquid diet had a significant effect in speeding up bowel movements (P<0.05). Conclusion: Early oral hydration after cesarean was well tolerated and it was associated with rapid return of propulsive bowel movements, so to do, this results in better reply to the physiologic request of the patients.
G.torabizadeh (m.d), A.karimpour (ph.d), M.sadughi (m.d), Ss.darabi (m.sc),
Volume 6, Issue 2 (9-2004)
Abstract

Background & Objective: Aluminum (Al), the 3rd common element in the earth’s crust has a significant toxin potential for humans. Although the knowledge of Al toxicity has markedly improved in recent years, there is relatively little information regarding the embryotoxic and teratogenic potential of Al. the purpose of this study was to assess the effect of short-term exposure of pregnant mice to Aluminum Chloride on the external organ formation of their fetuses. Materials & Methods: Mature NMRI mice (24-33 g) were used in this study. Day 0 of pregnancy defined as the day in which the vaginal plug was found. Plug-positive mice were randomly divided into size groups. The first, second and 3rd groups of animals were given IP injection of single dose of AlCl3 at 150 mg/kg/day on days 10, 11 and 12 of gestation respectively. Mice in the 3 other groups (Controls) received single injection of 0.3 ml saline on days 10, 11 and 12 respectively. Mice were killed on day 15 of gestation. Live fetuses were weighed and examined for external abnormalities. Results: The fetal body weight was significantly reduced in all Al-treated groups (P<0.05). The proportions of external malformations in 10th, 11th and 12th days treated were 47.0%, 37.0% and 33.1% groups respectively with significantly increase comparing to controls (P<0.05). Conclusion: It is concluded that a single dose of the Al administered to pregnant mice can cause external malformations in their fetuses.
E.mobsheri (m.d), R.azarhoush (m.d), H.khoddam (m.sc), Mr.rabeia (m.sc), M.tazik (m.d),
Volume 6, Issue 2 (9-2004)
Abstract

Background & Objective: Preeclampsia is a common complications of pregnancy it’s about 5-7% in pregnants and it may complicate mother or fetus which ends with death. The purpose of this study was to determine the value of the protein/creatinine ratio in prediction of 24-hour urine total among women with suspected preeclampsia. Materials & Methods: 60 women who were evaluated for suspected preeclampsia at ?24 weeks of gestation were studied prospectively in Deziani Hospital Gorgan. There was no concurrent or preexisting systemic disease. They were undergoing a 24-hour urine collection for the determination of proteinuria. A single voided urine specimen was obtained after completion of the 24-hour urine collection and analyzed for the P/C ratio. Results: The random urinary protein to creatinine ratios is strongly associated with the 24-hour total protein excretion (P<0.05, R=0.75). The best cut off of 0.5 yields a sensitivity of 47% and a specificity of 100%. Conclusion: The random urinary protein to creatinine ratio could replace the 24-hour urine collection as a simple, faster more useful method for the diagnosis of significant proteinuria.
R.ghorbani (phd), Am.gharrvai (msc), M.khazaei (phd), Aa.mohsenemami (md), A.pourmotabbad (phd), J.ghasemi (phd), P.sayadi (phd),
Volume 7, Issue 1 (4-2005)
Abstract

Background&Objective: Bisphenol A (BPA) is a xenobiotic estrogenic compound that are a monomer of some plastics (poly carbonate and epoxy resin) that are widely used in dental sealant, dishes and tableware. This compound has suspected to have estrogenic effects on reproductive system and related to endocrine disrupting chemicals. In this present study we investigated possible low dose effects of BPA on testis weight and structure and prostate weight. Materials&Methods: Male wistar rats (12-13 week old) were administrated a daily intra peritoneal 10µg/kgbw/day, 50µg/kgbw/day, 100µg/kgbw/day dose of BPA for6 and 12 days and one day after last injection testis and prostate weighted and histological section of testes prepared( 5 micrometer ) and stained by H&E and weigert hematoxilin . All data were expressed as means±SE. two-way ANOVA and chi- quire was performed. Results: in compare with control group, testis and prostate weight of dose groups were decreased. Disruptions of epithelial layer cells of semniferous tubules were detected. Conclusion: The present study showed that BPA at low doses affects histological structure and weight of testis and prostate, in the adult wistar rat.
M.mehdizadeh (phd), F.kermanian (msc), G.farjah (phd), Pn.tabatabaei (bsc),
Volume 7, Issue 1 (4-2005)
Abstract

Background&Objective: Lead toxicity is a common popular problem. Many researches were performed about this toxicity both in-vivo and in-vitro since 100 years ago.Those studies showed that lead have toxic effects such as behavioral disorders, decrease of IQ and decrease of learning and memory. Also lead has neurotoxic effects such as decrease of neuronal density in visual cortex of monkey, cell death in hippocampus and decrease of acetylcolin in rat’s hippocampus. In this study we examin neurotoxic effects of lead on rat’s radial nerve because radial nerve is a mix nerve. Materials&Methods: 24 adult male rats were divided in six groups. Groups I and II received lead acetate 4% and 2%, groups III and IV received disttiled water and normal water for one month.After this time, we killed rats and exposed radial nerve from behind of arm.Then studied them with light and electron microscopy. Results: In experimental groups we saw decrease of myelin sheath diameter and decrease of nuclear density in schwann cell. Also we saw many granules in mitochondrial matrix, active macrophage, edema and disarrangement of myelin sheath layers. Conclusion: We suggest that lead neurophaty is due to schwann cell injury and this lesion lead to decrease of myelin sheath.
F.jalali (md), Mr.khosoosiniyaki (md), M.hajahmadi (phd),
Volume 7, Issue 1 (4-2005)
Abstract

Background&Objective: Prolongation of QRS duration particularly in Left bundle Branch Block (LBBB) is commonly associated with many cardiac diseases. Electrocardiographic study of QRS duration and electrical axis may be predictors of sever LV systolic dysfunction. Materials&Methods: In this prospective Study conducted in cardiac ward CCU and out- patient clinic of Sh. Beheshti hospital in Babol (1999-2001), 150 patients with diagnosis of LBBB divided to two groups (one QRS≥0.16 second and the other with QRS<0.16) second . Then relationship between QRS- duration, Left axis deviation and echocardiographic LV ejection fraction analysed. Results: There wasn’t significant correlation between ages, gender, and type of cardiac disease with ejection fraction among patients with LBBB. The mean ejection Fraction in the patients with a QRS duration0.16 second (n=19) was significantly lower than the mean ejection fraction in the patients with a QRS duration<0.16 second (n=131) (P<0.05) Presence of Left axis deviation associated with LBBB did not have added predictive value and was not significantly correlated with Ejection Fraction. Conclusion: As conclusion, the QRS duration 0.16 second in the presence of LBBB has a significant inverse relation with Ejection Fraction and is a simple and appropriate marker of significant left ventricular dysfunction.
M.roghani (phd), T.baluchnejad-Mojarad (phd), F.roghani-Dehkordi (md),
Volume 7, Issue 2 (10-2005)
Abstract

Background&Objective: Marrubium vulgare has preventing and antioxident components. There are some evidence of hypoglicemic and hypolepidemic of this medicinal herb. This study was done to determine the hypoglycemic and the hypolipidemic activities of Marrubium vulgare in diabetic Rats. Materials&Methods: In this experimental study, 40 male Wistar rats were divided into control, treated control, diabetic, and treated diabetic groups. For induction of diabetes, streptozotocin (STZ 60 mg/Kg i.p.) was used at a single dose. The treatment groups received oral administration of plant-mixed pelleted food (6.25%) for two months. Serum glucose, triglyceride and cholestrol concentrations. Were meuseud by spectrophotometry technique. Results: Serum glucose level in diabetic group increases 4 and 8 weeks after the experiment as compared to data one week before the study began (P<0.05). Marrubium vulgare treatment of diabetic rats did not any significant effect. In addition, triglyceride level in diabetic group increased 8 weeks after the experiment in comparison with related data one week before the study (P<0.05) and there was a significant lower level of triglyceride in Marrubium vulgare-treated diabetic rats (p<0.05). Furthermore, a similar significant reduction was obtained for treated-diabetic group as compared to diabetic group regarding serum cholesterol level (p<0.05). Conclusion: This study showed that oral administration of Marrubium vulgare in long-term could significantly reduce serum triglyceride and cholesterol levels without any effect on serum glucose in diabetic rats.
A.parviz Kazemei (md), H.kamalipour (md),
Volume 7, Issue 2 (10-2005)
Abstract

Background&Objective: Post operative pain is a common phenomenon that it is one of the important problems in surgery. Different methods have been used to control post operative pain. Morphine and Buprenorphine are classified as narcotics, and their effect on post operative pain relief has been evaluated in this study. Materials&Methods: This randomized clinical trial (RCT) was done on 40 patients with lumbar disk herniation that randomly classified in morphine and buprenorphine group. During induction of anaesthesia 0.2 mg/kg morphine and 4.5/kg buprenorphine were injected intravenously to the corresponding groups, respectively. At the end of anaesthesia, heart rate, systolic and diastolic blood pressure were evaluated as well as severity of pain. Then, collected achieved data were analysed. Results: The severity of pain in buprenorphine group was less than morphine at all the times except the time of discharge from recovery (p<0.05). With respect to sedation there was a meaningful difference between the two groups at the time of entering recovery and 15 minutes later. The sedation was more in buprenorphine group, (p<0.05) There was no meaningful statistical difference in relation to heart rate between the two groups. Systolic blood pressure, between two groups was significant except at the time of entering recovery. Also, systolic blood pressure was not significant between two groups. Conclusion: This study showed the bupernorphine has long anaesthesia and sedation.
M.jabal Amelei (md), Sj.hashemei (md), F.fatemei (md),
Volume 7, Issue 2 (10-2005)
Abstract

Background&Objective: Sellick’s maneuver is a routinely used technique for the prevention of pulmonary aspiration of gastric contents during anesthesia. The rationale for the application of cricoid pressure necessitates that it is applied at the loss of consciousness during rapid sequence induction. Cricoid pressure therefore, may be fully applied at a level of anesthesia where awareness, and possibly recall, of the maneuver occurs. Materials&Methods: This study was setup to determine the frequency of awareness and recall Sellick's maneuver following 100 patients (ASA I, II) who candidates for lower extremity surgery were randomly enrolled in this prospective study. After induction of anesthesia and application of cricoid pressure, symptoms of awareness and recall were recorded. Data were analyzed by SPSS software and Spearman correlation. Results: The frequency of awareness and recall were 45% and 16% respectively. The frequency distribution of awareness severity based on grade 1, 2 and 3 were 16%, 6% and 1% respectively. The frequency distribution of recall severity based on mild, moderate and sever were 15%, zero and 1% respectively. The correlation between awareness severity and recall severity was statistically significant (P<0.05). Conclusion: Due to high frequency of awareness and recall following Sellick's maneuver and its complications, it is advaiable to revise the procedure of this maneuver and inparticular the accurte time in its application.
R.azarhoush (md), Hr.bazrafshan (md), V.kazeminejad (md), F.nadali (md), S.rajaee (md),
Volume 7, Issue 2 (10-2005)
Abstract

Background&Objective: The presence of single or multiple nodules within the thyroid gland is a common clinical problem. It is immposible to differentiate benign and malignant follicular neoplasms in cytologic examinations.Estimation of risk of malignancy in thyroid nodules who are cytologically assumped to be follicular neoplasm has a critical importance.The aim of this research is evaluation of diagnostic value of thyroid FNA in follicular neoplasm. Materials&Methods: This survey was done on 476 patients with thyroid nodule whome were biopsied in a 7 years period (in 5th Azar hospital, Gorgan). Standard aspirations and biopsies techniques performed and nessassary smears prepared. Wet-fixed smear glass slides are placed immediately in alcohol (70%) 7-10 slides from the aspiration. The patients with cytologic report whome considered follicular neoplasm followed total thyroidectomy or lobectomy. Results: From 476 patients for thyroid nodules 412 cases(86.5%) are suitable for cytologic evaluation which 312 cases(77.9%) of them were benign and 14 cases(3.3%) were malignant.The rest(77 cases)reported to have follicular neoplsm, this patients also undergone thyroid surgery.The result of histological findings appeared in 32 cases(57.1%) follicular adenoma,15 cases(26.7%) non-neoplastic nodules,5 cases(8.9%) follicular carcinoma and 4 cases(7.1%)follicular type of papillary carcinoma. Conclusion: 9 cases (16%) found malignant among cases which cytologic reports considered as “follicular neoplasms” and subsequently undergone thyroid surgery (consist of follicular carcinoma and follicular type of papillary carcinoma), confirme the importance of histopathologic study of follicular lesions for differentiation between malignant and benign lesions.
K.kazem-Nejad (md), M.ghergherechi (md),
Volume 8, Issue 1 (3-2006)
Abstract

Background&Objective: The main cause of the cardiovascular disease is atherosclerosis of coronary artery. One of theraputic methods of the disease is coronary artery bypass graft (CABG). One of the main complicatons of CABG is bleeding after grafting. Different methods and proposed for preventing or reducting the bleeding. The aim of this study is to evaluate the effects of tranexamic acid (TA) on reduction of bleeding after grafting.

Materials&Methods: This study was a randomized clinical trial. 100 patients conditated to CBG divided into 2 groups randomizely (50 for control and 50 for subject). TA was injected to subject group twice with the same dosage of 15 mg/kg: first during the operation and second after ending the cardiopulmunary pomp and neutralizing the theraputic effect of heparin by protamin. The same method was used for the control group, except normal saline was used instead of TA variations such as bleeding rate, PT, aPTT were tested after CABG. The extracted data was analysed by SPSS software.

Results: The range of ages was 28 to 75 years and the control and subject groups were distributed normally from age viewpoint. Bleeding rate after grafting in subject group was 335±45 ml and in control group was 490±81 ml. in case and control platelet count and hematocrit groups, were significant differences (P<0.05).

Conclusion: Using TA during and after CABG is suggested to control bleeding.


Afshar M, Hamy J, Boghrati M,
Volume 8, Issue 4 (12-2006)
Abstract

Background&Objective: Acetaminophen is a drug that is used commonly in the all time of pregnancy as a antipyretic and analgestic. The aim of this study was to determine teratogenic effects of this drug when it is used continuously before and during pregnancy. Materials&Methods: 210 virgin female Balb/c mice in a standard animal house condition were assigned in to three experimental groups and three period of time (30 mice in the each of I and II experimantal groups and 60 in III experimental group): The first experimental group subdivided in to three I10, I20, I30 subgroups that received acetaminophen once daily at dose 40mg/kg/day by gavage in 10, 20 and 30 days prior to gestation and early 10 days of pregnancy, respectively. The second experimental group divided like the previous group (II10, II20, II30) but received 40 mg/kg/day of this drug twice daily (80 mg/kg/day). The third experimental group (III10, III20, III30) received 80 mg/kg/day of acetaminophen with and without 0.14 mg/kg/day of folic acid. Mice in Control groups, received normal saline and base of drug respectively. After using standard coupling method (three female mice with one male and determination of Gestational day 0) in GD18 the dams were sacrificed and the fetuses were removed. Macroscopic observation was done by stereomicroscope. ANOVA and TUKEY tests were used by the help of 10 version of SPSS software. Results: Long consumption of acetaminophen in doses of 40 and 80 mg/kg/day in the 20 and 30 days before pregnancy and 10 days after pregnancy can induce shortened and asymmetrical limbs and hand aplasia. In addition, ekymosis and fetal resorption were seen.16.1%, 6.5% and 14% of fetuses were malformed in the I30, II20 and II30 groups, respectively. Also, 11.3%, 4.9% and 12.4% of fetuses in these same groups had limb defects. In the III20 and III30 groups that fetuses used folic acid and drug at the same time, rate of malformations reduced to 1.6% (P<0.05). Conclusion: It is recommended pregnant women not to take acetaminophen atleast a month before pregnancy and in case of taking this drug the folic acid to be accompanied.
Atarod Z, Vashqani-Farahani F, Torab Parhiz F,
Volume 8, Issue 4 (12-2006)
Abstract

Background&Objective: Preeclampsia is a common complication of pregnancy it’s a bout 5-7 percent in pregnants and it may complicate mother or fetus which ends with death. The purpose of this study was to determine the value of the protein / creatinine ratio in prediction of 24-hour urine total among women with suspected preeclampsia. Materials&Methods: 150 women who were evaluated for suspected preeclampsia at ?20 weeks of gestation were studied prospectively in Az-zahra and Emam hospital Sari. There was no concurrent or preexisting systemic disease. They were undergoing a 24-hour urine collection for the determination of proteinuria. A single voided urine specimen was obtained after completion of the 24-hour urine collection and analyzed for the P/C ratio. Results: The randome urinary protein to creatinine ratios is strongly associated with the 24-hour total protein excretion (P<0.05, r = 0.37). The best cut off of 0.175 yieldes a sensitivity of 85.9% and a specificity of 66%. Conclusion: The random urinary protein to creatinine ratio could replace the 24-hour urine collection as a simple, faster more useful method for the diagnosis of significant protenuria.

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مجله دانشگاه علوم پزشکی گرگان Journal of Gorgan University of Medical Sciences
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