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Showing 20 results for Prevalence

Ghorbani R (msc), Pazooki R (msc), Ahmadian Ar (md),
Volume 1, Issue 3 (10-1999)

Intestinal parasites have worldwide prevalence and is considered to be as one of the most important hygienic problems in the world. As a whole, we can say there is no where in the world without parasites infestations. For the assessment of parasitic infestations of children under 2 years old in urban areas of Semnan, sample of stools for 3 consecutive days of 359 children under 2 years old, whom were accompanied by their mothers to the health center, were obtained. Samples were recognized by Formalin/ether and direct methods and thionin staining. From 359 children below 2 years old that their stools were examined, 14.2% of them had Protozoa infestation and Giardia Lamblia by 10% was the most common parasite. In these children, infestation by intestinal helminths was not seen and infestation by pathogen parasites was seen in 10.3%. There was significant association between the age and infestation by intestinal parasites (P=0.0000). There was not any significant association between the sexual, areas condition (Tropical/cold) by intestinal parasites. The most common parasite was Giardia. Therefore, educating mothers the principles of hygiene, can prevent infestation to parasites and the potential complications.
A.r.mirahmaizadeh (m.d), M.r.kadivar (m.d), R .ghane Shirazi (m.d), M.fararooei (m .sc),
Volume 3, Issue 2 (9-2001)

Drug addicts, especially those practicing injection, are regarded as a major high-risk group for HIV infection. This study was performed to determine the burden of infection in 1061 drug addicts residing in the rehabilitational camp of Shiraz. In 1998, a survey in 1061 randomly selected drug abuse residing in the rehabilitational camp of Shiraz were performed in which demographic and other required data were collected using a questionnaire and samples from each subject were tested for anti-HIV by ELISA-II and then western blot. Overall, 0.76% of subjects were positive for anti-HIV detected by ELISA-II, 1.2% among intravenous and 0.33% among non-intravenous drug abusers, which, being several hundred times more than the prevalence in the general population. Points to the fact that drug addicts must be regarded very high-risk irrespective of their principle method of drug use. The high prevalence among non-intravenous addicts also may be indicative of the possibility that they have practiced high-risk injection sometimes during the period of addiction or imprisonment. Due to the low number of positive cases, no relation could be established between the age, duration and method of drug abuse, history of imprisonment, job, tattooing, marital status and HIV infection. Authors recommend widespread education of the community and drug abuser population in order to reduce the prevalence and spread of infection in addicts an the society, active case-finding among drug abusers, particularly before their referral to rehabilitational centers and developing control measures along with educational program to prevent the residents of these centers from access to drugs and practice of high-risk methods such as needle-sharing.
Mr.mohammadi (m.d), M.rahgozar (m.sc), Sa.bagheri Yazdi (m.sc), B.mesgarpour (m.d), Ba.maleki (m.d), Sh.hoseini (m.d), Z.safari (m.sc), F.momeni (m.sc),
Volume 6, Issue 1 (3-2004)

Background & Objective: The burden of psychiatric disorders in the developed countries has been identified by the screening questionnaires and standard clinical interviews at a high level, but the epidemiological studies of psychiatric disorders in our country are brief and their numbers are few. Providing essential mental health services to the people requires us to be knowledgeable about the present status of psychiatric disorders in the society. The objective of their research was to carry out the epidemiological study of the psychiatric disorders in the 18 years and above individuals in the urban and rural areas of Golestan province. Materials & Methods: 518 individuals selected through randomized clustered and systematic sampling methods from among the existing families of Golestan province and the schedule for affective disorders and Schizophrenia (SADS) questionnaires completed by the clinical psychologist. The diagnosis of the disorders was based on DSM-IV classification criteria. Results: The results of the study showed that the prevalence of psychiatric disorders in the province is 14.69%, which was 18.14% in the women, and 11.47% in the men. The mood and affective disorders respectively with 7.93 and 4.05% had the higher prevalence in the province. The prevalence of psychiatric disorders in this study was 0.97%, neuro-cognitive disorders 1.16% and dissociative disorders 0.58%. In the group anxiety disorders, panic disorder with 4.05% of had the higher prevalence and in the group of affective disorder, major depression, hypomanic and manic disorder with 1.93. Conclusion: This study showed that 7.53% of individuals that were studied suffered from at least one of the psychiatric disorders. The prevalence of psychiatric disorders in the province among the individuals in the age group of 41-55 years with 13.04%, separated or divorced individuals 50%, residents of urban areas 11.03%, illiterate individuals 12.75% and housewives 13.04% was more than other individuals in the sample. Being aware of this matter reveals the responsibility of the health policy makers and programmers, prevention, treatment and medical education more than before in relation to preparing application and executive plans in Golestan province for mental health.
Smt.ayatollahi (ph.d), H.ghaem (m.sc),
Volume 6, Issue 1 (3-2004)

Background & Objective: Atopic diseases are one of the most common chronic conditions in children. A population based matched study was conducted to estimate the prevalence of atopic diseases and this study used to identify its correlations in primary school children aged 6-12 years in Shiraz (Southern Iran). Materials & Methods: This case-control study was carried out in 2228 primary school children. The children were selected using 2-stage random sampling from the 4 educational distrincts of for each child. The consultant physician examined the children with positive result. After diagnosis of eczema, utricaria and allergic rhinitis control groups were selected by using matching method (Age, sex, school). The correlations of atopic diseases were determined by conditional logestic regression. Results: The most important results were as follow: Prevalence of diagnosed allergic rhinitis, utricaria and eczema in primary school children estimated in order 5.2% (Boys: 5.2% & girls: 5.12%), 3.6% (Boys: 3.57% & girls: 3.7%) and 1.6% (Boys: 1.53% & girls: 1.7%). There was no significant association between atopic diseases and birth order, social class, parent’s education, parent’s smoking and period of breast-feeding. An increased risk of childhood atopic diseases were associated with familiar history of allergic rhinitis (P<0.05), familiar history of utricaria (P<0.05) and familiar history of eczema (P<0.05). Conclusion: Our study confirmed that familiar atopic diseases were significant predictors of childhood allergic rhinitis, utricaria and eczema among school children in Shiraz.
Ma.mohseni-Bandpay (phd), M.bagheri-Nasami (msc), M.fakhri (msc), M.ahmad-Shirvani (msc), Ar.khaliliyan (phd),
Volume 7, Issue 1 (4-2005)

Background&Objective: Low back pain (LBP) is common in youth, although `associated with chronic pain in adults. The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence and risk factors of LBP in school children age 11-14. Materials&Methods: A cross sectional study was carried out on school children aged 11-14 in north of Iran. Using random multistage sampling 5000 children were selected. Demographic, mechanical and lifestyle data as well as the prevalence and LBP characteristics were collected by a questionnaire. Data analysis was carried out using SPSS (version11) software. Results: Of the original sample, 4813 (96.2%) children returned the questionnaire. Point, last month, last 6 months and annual prevalence were 15%, 14.4%, 15.6%, and 17.4%, respectively. LBP was significantly correlated with age (p<0.05), lifting (p<0.05), position and duration of watching TV, doing homework and duration of exercise (p<0.05). Conclusion: The results indicated that the prevalence of LBP in school children is relatively high. Further studies evaluating the effect of different preventive strategies to reduce the prevalence of LBP in school children is strongly recommended.
Khosravi H, Kazem-Nejad K,
Volume 8, Issue 4 (12-2006)

Background&Objective: In recent century, progress of technology and hygiene has caused improvement of human life. But factors such as car accidents and braws cause body damages. Due to absence of about the prevalence of jaw and face fractures proper pattern and related damages in Golestan province, this study was done to determine the pattern of jaw and face fracturs in 5th Azar hospital in Gorgan – Iran (2003-04). Materials&Methods: In a 3-years prospective study (2003-04), 221 patients in referral hospital in Golestan province were evaluated and data about demography, etiology, related damages and therapeutic procedures inserted in informational forms and extracted data was analysed by SPSS 11.5 software. Results: In this study 84.1% and 15.9% of patients were male and frmale, respectively and most of them were 21 to 30 years old. The most common causes of fractures of jaw and face in these patients consist of driving accident (72.8%), falling down (15.4%) and major trauma (11.8%). In accidents, motor accidents were the commonest cause (60.9%). Mandible bone was the commonest site of fracture (77.8%) and trauma to the skull and nervous tissues was the most common accompaniment damage. Open reduction was the main therapy in these patients. Death was not seen in this study at all. Conclusion: This study showed that driving accidents, specially motor accidents are the most common causes of fractures of jaw and face. Therefore , emphasis on observation of driving regulations and use of life belt and helmet is very important.
Bayany Aa, Koocheky Am, Koocheky Ghm,
Volume 9, Issue 2 (7-2007)

Background&Objective: Teacher’s mental health, due to its effect on the formation of attitude and mental health of students, play more important role than any other social-class. This research focuses on the extend of teacher’s mental health with various levels of education as its main objective. Materials&Methods: This is a descriptive cross-sectional research. Statistical population is comprised of all teachers in Golestan province who involved teaching at schools in the educational year of 1383-84. a sample of 535 teachers was obtained through multi-phase random cluster sampling. Symptom checklist questionnaire with a cut-point of 2.5 on each dimension and 1.3 cut-point for global symptom index (GSI) were considered in determining teacher’s mental disorder. Results: Finding showed %81.1 of teachers are of sound mental health and %18.9 of them (%21.8 in female and %14.9 in mal) seem to suffer at least from one of the symptoms of mental disorder. The sequence of disorder symptom prevalence was as follow: somatization %7.3, paranoid ideation %5.8 and depression % 4.9. the highest mental disorder was seen among elementary school teachers(%21.6) and the lowest among senior high school teachers(%14.9). a significant correlation coefficient between teacher’s level of education and overtime work with global symptom index(GSI) was seen(P<0.05). Conclusion: Result of study showed that the prevalence of mental disorders among Golstan teachers are medium and this finding are indicative of lower mental disorder among the teachers in Golestan province in comparison to the finding of similar researches done in other provinces.
Saba Besharat, Sima Besharat, Rasool Salahi,
Volume 9, Issue 3 (10-2007)

Background & Objectives: Diabetes mellitus contains a group of common metabolic disorders that induces problems in health status. Its prevalence is increasing in the world, due to increase the rate of obesity and decrease in physical activities. This study was done to evaluate incidence of diabetes and prevalence in rural areas of Kalaleh city(North of Iran).


Materials & Methods: In this descriptive cross-sectional study all persons over 30 years old were enrolled, according to diagnosis of diabetes before 2005 or diagnosis in the screening programs (with FPG>126 in two turns) in rural areas of Kalaleh during 2005-06. After collection of demographic data with questionnaires and laboratory findings, they were entered to computer with SPSS-15 software. Central and distributive indices and incidence & prevalence of diabetes were assumed according to the whole population.


Results: In this study, 394 cases were enrolled. Incidence and prevalence of diabetes was 0.6% and 1.13%, respectively. Mean age of cases was 51.61 years. Male to female ratio was 0.4. Mean BMI was 29.43 kg/m2 and a significant difference was seen between two gender (P<0.05). Most of the cases were Turkmen (72.8%). Illiterates were the major group (77.2%) and 1.8% had diploma or higher educational levels.


Conclusion: Prevalence and incidence of diabetes was lower than the other area of Iran.

Nasser Aghamohammadzadeh (md), Farzad Najafipour (md), Akbar Aliasgharzadeh (md), Amir Bahrami (md), Mitra Niafar (md), Majid Mobasseri (md), Mehdi Amiri (md), Leila Baghlar (md),
Volume 11, Issue 1 (3-2009)

Background and Objective: Diabetes mellitus is the most frequent cause of chronic renal failure. Microalbuminuria is the first clinically important sign of renal impairment in diabetes mellitus. The main pathophysiology of diabetic nephropathy is not understood. This study was done on 100 patients with type 2 diabetes for determination of the prevalence of diabetic nephropathy with urine albumin assay in Sina Hospital in Tabriz, North-West of Iran. Materials and Methods: In this discriptive study, 100 patients with type 2 diabetes whome consecutively referred to Endocrine and Diabetes Clinic of Sina Medical Center in Tabriz were enrolled. At the first visit clinical and biochemical parameters such as systolic and diastolic blood pressure, age, sex, body weight, length, body mass index, FBS, HbA1C, plasma creatinine, urine microalbumin and urinary creatinine were measured. FBS, HbA1C, plasma creatinine, urine microalbumin and urinary creatinine measurements repeated every 2 months up to three times during the study. Patients with confounding factors such as uncontrolled hypertension, urinary tract infection, congestive heart failure and hyperlipidemia were excluded. Results: The prevalence of diabetic nephropathy was 36% in our patients. There were not statistically significant differences in age and sex and diastolic – systolic blood pressure and creatinine between nephropathy and, non-nephropathy groups. There was significant differences in body mass index between two sex groups, females were more obese than males. Mean duration of diabetes in diabetic nephropathy group and in diabetic patients without nephropathy were 12.4±8.1 and 9.1±5.5 respectively (P<0.05). Comparison of HbA1c, FBS and drugs used for diabetes treatment were not significant differences between these groups. Conclusion: This study showed that prevalence of diabetic nephropathy was higher than other studies, although there were not significant differences between FBS, HbA1c and hypertension in patients with and without diabetic nephropathy.
Milad Fadai, Akram Sanagoo(phd), Leila M Jouybari (phd), Krim Aq-Arakakli, Shariar Semnani (md),
Volume 11, Issue 4 (12-2009)

Background and Objective: Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is a disturbance of colonic function characterized by abdominal pain or discomfort, bloating and abnormal bowel function, resulting in episodes of chronic diarrhea, chronic constipation, or both in alternation. It affects approximately 3 to 20 percent of the population. The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of Irritable bowel syndrome among the high school pupile in Gorgan, in North of Iran. Materials and Methods: In this descriptive-analytical cross sectional study, data was collected by clustering, quota and randomized sampling. 1080, 15-19 years old male and female high school pupiles, residing in Gorgan participated in the survey during 2007. The data collection tool was a demographic questionnaire and standard Rome-II criteria. Results: 1063 pupiles completed the questionnaire. The Irritable bowel syndrome prevalence according to Rome-II was 5.7%. The relation between ethnicity and Irritable bowel syndrome was significant (P<0.05). The rate of Irritable bowel syndrome was higher among the Turkmen students. There was no significant relation between Irritable bowel syndrome prevalence with gender, age and family income. Conclusion: This study showed that irritable bowel syndrome prevalence in this area is nearly similar to that reported in national studies in western Iran as well as with Asian countries.
Hosseinpour-Niazi S (msc), Naderi Z (msc), Hosseinpour-Niazi N (bs), Delshad M (msc), Mirmiran P (phd), Azizi F (md),
Volume 13, Issue 4 (12-2011)

Background and Objective: Malnutrition in hospital increases the mortality of patients. The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of malnutrition and related risk factors in hospitalized patients. Materials and Methods: This descriptive study was carried out on 446 patients (217 males, 229 females) during 6 months, admitted to the Taleghani hospital in Tehran, Iran during 2005. Anthropometric measurements and previous admission to hospital in previous 6 months for each patient was recorded. Mild, moderate and severe malnutrition were considered as BMI=18-20 kg/m2 and TSF, or MAMC<10th, or weight loss<5% as BMI=16-18kg/m2 and TSF, or MAMC<5th, or weight loss 5-10% and severe as BMI<16kg/m2 and TSF, or MAMC<5th or weight loss>10% in previous 6 months respectively. Results: The prevalence rate of malnutrition as a general was 52% with following subdivision: 14%, 10% and 28% in mild, moderate and severe, respectively. The highest prevalence of malnutrition observed in gastrointestinal ward, males, those aged 18-29 year and patients with secondary and high school education. In malnourished patients, the prevalence of TSF, MAC and MAMC <5th were significantly more than of well-nourished subjects (P<0.05). Increase BMI per unit decreased the risk of malnutrition by 17% (OR: 0.83 CI: 0.79-0.87). Malnutrition was 64% higher in patients with 1≥ gastrointestinal disturbances, compared with those without it and 2.1 higher in patients with 2≥-hospitalized readmission, compared with subjects without readmission in previous 6 month. Odds ratio of at least one hospitalized admission in previous 6 month was 1.64 in patients with MAC <5th, compared with those with MAC 50-75th (P<0.017). Conclusion: This study showed that Malnutrition upon hospitalization is common in Tehran. BMI, gastrointestinal disturbances, and readmission were associated with malnutrition.
Rahimian Boogar I (phd), Bayani Aa (phd),
Volume 14, Issue 1 (3-2012)

Background and Objective: Identification of disorders frequency in adolescence stage has implications for child and adolescence psychiatry. This study was carried out to determine the prevalence of DSM-IV behavioral disorders among 12-17 years pupiles of Golestan province during 2010-11.

Materials and Methods: In a cross-sectional descriptive study, 1500 pupiles (715 boys and 785 girls) from schools of Golestan State were selected through stratified random sampling method. Demographical questionnaire and DSM-IV based behavioral disorders of Achenbach youth self-report scale (YSR) were recorded. Data were analyzed through descriptive statistic and nonparametric test of Chi-Square and calculation of Odd Ratio and 95%CI with PASW software.

Results: Prevalence of behavioral disorders among the sample population 12-14 years, 15-17 years and as total were 5.47%, 5.05% and 5.27%, respectively. Prevalence of somatic disorders and anxiety were 5.8% and 4.7%, respectively. Moreover, the difference between prevalence of conduct and ADHD disorders in males and females were significant (P<0.05). Odd ratio for both genders in prediction of conduct disorder and ADHD and for the scholastic grade in prediction of affective and anxious disorders was significant (P<0.05).

Conclusion: Total prevalence of behavioral disorders among the pupiles of Golestan province in Iran was 5.27%, which is approximately similar to the other studies in Iran.

Valizadeh F (md), Mousavi A (bsc), Hashemi-Soteh Mb (phd),
Volume 14, Issue 1 (3-2012)

Background and Objective: According to world health organization statistics, at least 5.2% of world population is carrier for a main hemoglobin disorder. Previous reports showed that more than 10% of people are carrier for beta-thalassemia Northern Iran. This study was done to determine the prevalance of hemoglobinopathies in premarriage individuals referred to Babolsar, Iran.

Materials and Methods: This descriptive study was carried out on 8500 individuals  (4200 women and 4300 men) whome were attended the thalassemia counseling program in Babolsar, North of Iran during 2006-09. After performing the CBC test, for those MCV and MCH were less than 80 and 27 respectively, Hemoglobin A2 was evaluated. Subjects whome were volunteers for more comprehensive tests, basic and acidic electrophoresis and genetic tests were applied, subsequently.

Results: 1200 (14.11%) subjects had low hematological indexes. 474 (5.57%) subjects had high HbA2 and were classified as beta-thalassemia carriers and 726 (8.54%) had normal HbA2 level and were classified as alpha-thalassemia carriers. 6 (1.2%) subjects were identified with HbF level more than 10 and were identified as carriers for beta-gene cluster deletion carrier. Also, 16 (3.2%) individuals had HbE, 16 (3.2%) had HbS, 4 had HbD and 4 had HbH (0.33% in 1200 and 0.047% in 8500 subjects). Genetic study of 317 individuals for beta carriers and 145 subjects for alpha-carriers showed IVSII-1G>A (74.5%) in beta-globin and single gene deletion of 3.7 (47.5%) in alpha-globin genes were the most frequent mutations.

Conclusion: This study showed that carriers for alpha - thalassemia (8.5%) are more frequent compared with beta- thalassemia (5.57%). Also other hemoglobin variants included HbS, HbE, HbD or different beta-gene cluster deletions in the region are considerable and should be screened.

Masoodpoor N, Arab-Baniasad F , Jafari A,
Volume 15, Issue 3 (10-2013)

Background and Objective: Congenital malformations are among important causes of morbidity and mortality in newborns. This study was done to determine the prevalence and pattern of congenital malformations in newborn. Materials and Methods: This descriptive study was done on 6089 newborns in maternity center in Rafsanjan, Iran during 2007-08. The newborns were examined by pediatricians and based on clinical examination the type of obvious of either minor or major malformations were recorded. Results: The 179 cases had at least a major or minor malformations. Over all the prevalence of malformations was 2.93%. The highest prevalence of obvious malformations was seen in the musculo-skeletal (43.5%), followed by genitourinary (22.9%) and cardiovascular systems (15.08%). There was significant relation between congenital malformations, gestational age and medicine used by mothers (P<0.05). Conclusion: The highest prevalence of obvious malformations was seen in the musculo-skeletal system.
Derakhshanpour F, Mahboobi Hr, Keshavarzi S,
Volume 16, Issue 1 (3-2014)

Background and Objective: Domestic violence is the most common against women with negative effect on mother’s health, family, children and society. This study was performed to determine the prevalence of domestic violence against women in Bandar Abbas, Iran. Methods: This descriptive cross - sectional study was conducted on 500 women referred to Shahid Mohammadi hospital in Bandar Abbas, Southern Iran. Violence and physical injuries were recorded for each woman using a questionnaire. Results: Domestic violence was reported in 460 (92 %) women. The mean age of women was 33.80±8.64 years. The mean years of marriage were 10.53±7.83 years. 389 (77.8%), 102 (20.4%) and 9 (1.8%) of women were housewive, employee and self employee, respectively. 14 (2.8%) women had addiction background. The most common type of violence against women was psychological (54%), followed by verbal (31%), physical (24.8%) and sexual (6.8%). Level of education and addiction in the families were the main factors in domestic violence. Conclusion: Psychological violence is the most common type of domestic violence and it is related to the level of education and addiction in the families.
Fahimeh Mirzaali , Amirreza Ahmadinia , Gholamreza Roshandel ,
Volume 21, Issue 3 (10-2019)

Background and Objective: Gingival recession is a common disease leads to esthetic problems, increased sensitivity of teeth and root caries. This study was done to determine the prevalence of gingival recession in dental students with high level of oral hygiene.
Methods: This descriptive-analytic study was performed on 214 dental students of Golestan University of Medical Sciences, Gorgan, Iran during 2017-2018. After collecting demographic information, clinical examination including Oral Hygiene Index (OHI) and Gingival Index (GI), Severity of gingival recession, width of keratinized gingival, attachment of frenulum, toothbrush trauma, tooth malpositions, periodontal diseases and other iatrogenic factors was measured.
Results: Prevalence of gingival recession was 23.8% .Class 1 and 2 of gingival recession was 84.62 % and 15.38%, respectively. Class 3 and 4 of gingival recession did not observe in any subjects. Toothbrush trauma was the most etiologic factor in 35.4% of dental students suffering of gingival recession (P<0.05). Also, dental malposition with 20.83%, loss of keratinized gingival with 14.58%, orthodontics procedures with 12.5%, periodontal diseases with 10.4% were the other factors in gingival recession.
Conclusion: Toothbrush trauma and dental malposition are the most important etiologic factors in dentistry students suffering from gingival recession.

Firoozeh Derakhshanpour, Mohammadreza Mohammadi, Hadi Zarafshan, Ameneh Ahmadi, Leila Kashani, Nilofar Bashiri, Siedeh Maryam Mosavi, Alia Lord, Azam Kabosi, Arezo Rezai, Fatemeh Safari, Seideh Maryam Hasheminasab,
Volume 22, Issue 3 (10-2020)

Background and Objective: Behavioral disorders among children and adolescents are common and incapacitating which cause many problems for the families and the patient themselves and associated with high prevalence of negative social consequences. This study was done to evaluate the prevalence of psychiatric disorders among children and adolescents in Gorgon, north of Iran (2019).
Methods: This descriptive-analytical study was performed on 1025 children and adolescents aged 6-18 years in Gorgan, north of Iran (2019). Subjects were selected by Multistage Cluster Sampling. Digital version of K-SADS test was studied for 24 types of child and adolescent psychiatric disorders. Sampling was done by trained psychologists, among general population and by referring to the house of people. Psychiatric disorders included mood disorders, behavioral disorders, neurodevelopmental disorders, substance abuse disorders, and elimination disorders.
Results: The prevalence of psychiatric disorders among children and adolescents was 13.2%. This prevalence was 14.3 % and 12.1% in males and females, respectively. According to age groups, The prevalence of psychiatric disorders was common in 6 to 9 years olds with 17.8% which in comparison with other age groups was significant (P<0.05). Eliminatory disorder with 6.1% was the most common illness followed by behavior (6%), tension disorders (4.8%) and neurodevelopmental disorders (3.3%).
Conclusion: The prevalence of psychiatric disorders among children and adolescents in this area is in a median range compared to other domestic and overseas.

Azadeh Aliarab, Bahram Yaghmaei , Sayyed Mohammad Hossein Ghaderian , Mergen Kalavi , Masoud Khoshnia, Gholamreza Roshandel , Zahra Hesari , Hamid Reza Joshagani ,
Volume 23, Issue 1 (3-2021)

Background and Objective: Gilbert's syndrome is a relatively common genetic disorder, which is caused by defection in uridine diphosphate glucuronosyl transferase enzyme. The indirect bilirubin increases in this syndrome, although the function of the liver is normal. Gilbert's syndrome can be seen in 3 to 10% of different populations. According to the differences in ethnic groups in Golestan Province, no studies have been conducted on the prevalence of the syndrome in the province, so far.This study was conducted to determine the prevalence of suspected Gilbertʼs syndrome in Golestan province in north of Iran.
Methods: This descriptive-analytical study was performed on 1664 subjects with 18-45 years old referring to rural and urban health centers in Golestan province, North of Iran during 2014. Liver function tests were normal in subjects. Fasting blood samples were taken from each subject and total bilirubin was tested. People with a total bilirubin of more than 1.5 mg/dl were treated with a single oral dose of rifampin 600 mg. After taking rifampicin, the individuals with an indirect bilirubin level of more than 1.3 mg/dl were found suspected of Gilbert’s syndrome.
Results: The prevalence of suspected Gilbert's syndrome was 5.8%. Moreover, suspected Gilbert’s syndrome was more common in males than females (10% in males and 4.3% in females) (P<0.05). According to ethnicity, the prevalence of suspected Gilbert's syndrome was 5.4%, 5.4%, and 6.8% in Sistani, Fars and Turkmen subjects, respectively. This difference was not significant. The prevalence of suspected Gilbert's syndrome in three ethnicities was higher in males than females and it was statistically significant in Sistani and Fars ethnicities (P<0.05) but not significant in Turkmen ethnicity.
Conclusion: Suspected cases of Gilbert's syndrome were more common in men than women, and more prevalent in the Turkmen ethnic group.
Firoozeh Derakhshanpour , Leila Kashani , Shiva Rezaian Deloii , Najmeh Shahini , Seiedeh Maryam Hasheminasab ,
Volume 24, Issue 1 (3-2022)

Background and Objective: Near to 30% of women experience some type of anxiety disorder in their life, which this anxiety occurs more often in pregnancy and after delivery. Maternal anxiety reduces secretion of oxytocin and lactation. On the other side, the level of maternal stress and anxiety increasingly increases the incidence of postpartum. This study was carried out to evaluate the prevalence of postpartum anxiety in Gorgan north of Iran during 2018.
Methods: This descriptive-analytical study was performed on 154 women between 15-45 years old and it has passed at least one week to maximum six weeks since their delivery whom referred to obstetrics clinic of Shahid Sayyad Shirazi hospital in Gorgan, North of Iran during 2018. Demographic check list was used to collect the demographic. Data and Spielberg anxiety scale was used to measure anxiety.
Results: Anxiety disorders after childbirth was 41.99%. The overt anxiety score of postpartum women in severe, moderate, mild and little or none level was 8.4%, 44.2%, 27.9%, 19.5%, respectively. The hidden anxiety score of postpartum women in severe, moderate, mild and little or none level was 9.7%, 48.1%, 24.7%, 17.5%, respectively. The overt anxiety score in employee mothers was significantly higher than housewive mothers (P<0.05). The overt anxiety score in women with marital discord was significantly higher than in women without marital discord (P<0.05). Ther was not significant relationship beween overt and hidden anxiety score with the type of delivery, mother's education, mother's residency and familial income.
Conclusion: The prevalency of postpartum anxiety disorders was high in this region and it was related to job and marital discord.
Hajiieh Bibi Razeghi-Nasrabad , Meimanat Hosseini-Chavoshi, Mohammad Jalal Abbasi-Shavazi ,
Volume 24, Issue 1 (3-2022)

Background and Objective: Infertility is one of the issues that affect many aspects of infertile couples. In this study current infertility in Tehran province is estimated based on clinical, epidemiological and demographic definitions.
Methods: This descriptive-analytical study was performed on 669 women with a spouse aged 15-49 in Tehran, Iran during 2020. Data were collected by using a valid researcher-made questionnaire.
Results: Prevalence of current infertility by clinical, epidemiological and demographic definitions was 9.6%, 8.1% and 5.8%, respectively. As expected, primary infertility is lower (2%-4%) than secondary infertility (1.8%-6.4%). Some couples become infertile after their first pregnancy and the birth of their first child. Infertility has a significant relationship with age (P<0.05), age in the first marriage (P<0.05) and socio-economic statuse (P<0.05).
Conclusion: Current primary infertility is relatively low and normal, but secondary infertility is high. Focus on lifetime infertility shows higher rates of infertility than current infertility in Tehran, Iran.

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مجله دانشگاه علوم پزشکی گرگان Journal of Gorgan University of Medical Sciences
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