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Showing 14 results for Iron

Azarhoush R (md),
Volume 1, Issue 1 (3-1999)

The amount of stainable Iron in the bone marrow is frequently used as a means of assessing Iron stores. In our study marrow Iron assessed in needle biopsy sections and simultaneously obtained aspirated smears from 75 patients. Significantly different amounts of stainable Iron were observed in needle biopsy and aspirated smears in 53.3% of the specimen. The usual difference consisted of significantly less stainable Iron in needle biopsy sections as compared to the aspirated smears (49.3%). In according to this study, in comparison of needle biopsy section to aspirated smears (As a golden test), sensitivity and specificity were 88 and 64 percent, respectively. Also, positive and negative predictive values were 56.5 and 91%, respectively. It can be appreciated that marrow assessment of Iron content may be associated with distinct differences between the needle biopsy specimens, and the aspirated smears, and could lead to diagnostic error, although, with some limitations and cautions biopsy specimen can be used for Iron assessment.
G.r.vaghari (m.sc), M.farajollahi (m.d),
Volume 3, Issue 2 (9-2001)

Anemia especially those due to Iron deficiency is one of the nutritional problems. Women are more susceptible to anemia during the age of fertility. The main purpose of this study is to determine the prevalence of anemia among 18-35 years old women in the villages around Gorgan. It was carried out in the 20 villages on 415 women. They were chosen by compound sampling. The mean age of the cases was 24.92 years old. Blood sampling and filling the questionnaire were carried out. On the chosen samples ferum Iron, TIBC, was determined using spectrophotometer hematolog tests was carried out using electronic cell counter. The prevalence of Iron deficiency, anemia, and the anemia due to Iron depletion were 37.78%, 25.1% and 13.45% respectively. There was not a meaningful relationship between marital status age with Iron depletion anemia and anemia due to Iron depletion. The conclusion out of this research showed that the anemia and especially anemia due to Iron depletion is one of the main nutritional problems among the women living in the villages around Gorgan.
E.ghaemi (ph.d), K. Ghazisaidei (ph.d), H.kohsarei (m.sc), B.khodabakhshei (m.d), F.kohsar (m.sc), N.behnampour (m.sc), M.basorei (b.sc), M.babaei-Kochaksaraei (b.sc), Sh.bahmanyar (m.d),
Volume 4, Issue 2 (9-2002)

All the different kind of Mycobacterium species except Tuberculosis Leprae and Bovis are considered as environmental Mycobacterium, which usually can be isolated from sand, water and dusts. In addition to the role of their pathogenesis, they can stimulate the immune systems. The immune mechanisms following Mycobacterium environmental contamination can be either protect or destroy the immune system when facing the disease related to the Mycobacterium. The Golestan province has got 2 regions from the point of view of TB epidemy, it is higher in the east. The aim of this project is determine the prevalency of various types and strains of environmental Mycobacterium in the east and west of the region. The samples were collected from both regions from the wet sand, and muddes covered with grass and following their preparation they were cultured on the Lowen Stein Jenson. The total of samples were 220 from these 120 samples were from the region with epidemy of TB out of these we had 25 samples with positive culture (20.8%) and 47 type of mycobacterium were isolated, the most common forms of them were Mycobacterium Fortuitum (34%), Mycobacterium Flavesens (21.2%), Mycobacterium Chelonae (12.8%). From 100 samples taken from the region with low epidemy of TB 66 samples were with positive culture (66%) which 114 strains of Mycobacterium were diagnosed. The most common forms of these microorganisms were Mycobacterium Flavesens (20.1%), Mycobacterium Chelonae (18.4%) and Mycobacterium (16.6%). In conclusion in all the Golestan province without taking notice the TB epidemy form 220 samples 91% were positive culture (41.2%) which 161 different strains were diagnosed out of these the most common were Mycobacterium Fortuitum (21.8%), Mycobacterium Flavesens (20.5%) and Mycobacterium Chelonae (16.8%). The epidemy and variousity of environmental Mycobacterium in the region with low epidemy were much higher than the region with high epidemy and in regard to that these differences are due to the bioenvironmental factors. So therefore this can indicate that the possibility of higher contact between the immune systems and the environmental Mycobacterium. These Mycobacteriums can act as Booster of BCG vaccine which can continuously stimulate the immune systems and this can help the body’s proper responses when facing with the TB Mycobacterium.
M.sharif (ph.d), H.ziaee (m.sc), M.azadbakht (ph.d), Sh.gholami (m.sc), Ar.khalilian (ph.d),
Volume 6, Issue 2 (9-2004)

Background & Objective: Giardiasis is one of the most prevalent human intestinal parasites, especially among children aged between 2 to 12 years old. In this study, the effects of Giardiasis on serological levels of Zinc and Iron elements were determined. Materials & Methods: A total of 100 children aged under 12 years who were admitted to the pediatric departments of hospitals affiliated to Mazandaran University with gastrointestinal complain, and diagnosed as having Giardiasis by stool examination (Direct and Formalin-ether technique and trichrome stain) in the parasitology department, were enrolled as the case group. The control group consisted of 100 age-matched healthy children. A questionnaire including age, physical growth status and clinical symptoms were completed. Serological levels of Zinc and Iron were measured by atomic absorption spectophotometer in all samples in Shilat of Mazandaran. Results: In this study, serum Iron levels were 67±25 µg/dl and 77±23 µg/dl and Zinc levels were 64±20 µg/dl and 96±23 µg/dl in case and control group, respectively. Statistical analysis showed significant differences between the serological levels of these elements, which was much higher in serum Iron levels (P<0.05). Conclusion: These results revealed those serological levels of Zinc and Iron decreased during Giardiasis due to malabsorption.
Ghr.mahmoodi (msc), Gh.rouhy (msc), M.mojerlu (md), H.sheikh (bsc), H.rahmany (msc),
Volume 8, Issue 2 (7-2006)

Background & Objective: Burnout is a syndrom that emerges by mental fatigue and loss of competency. Inappropriate pysical Environment and Professional Equipment may be caused Burnout in nursing. Therefore this study accomplished by object of determination of relationship between Burnout and physical Environment and professional equipments. Materials & Methods: This is a descriptive –analytical corrolational study. The environment of study was medical sciences hospitals and samples were nursing emploees in 1383-84. The research tools were two questionnaire including Maslach Burnout Inventory (MBI) consisted of three partsincluding: Emotional exhaustion, depersonalization and personal achivement. the next, was pysical Environment and Professional Equipments questionnaire. Results: Total participants were 272 nurses that43.8% of them had high level of emotional exhaustion, also there were a significant relationship between emotional exhaustion, dpersonalization and physical environment (p ? 0.05). In adition, there were a significant relationship between severity of emotional exhaustion and dpersonalization with professional equipments (p?0.05). There were a reversed relationship between burnout and professional equipments desirability. Conclusion: This study indicated that most of the samples had high emotional exhaustion and there were relationship with physical environment and professional equipments. Also there were a reversed relationship between burnout and professional equipments desirability.
Hosseini M, Shojaeizadeh D, Chaleshgar M, Pishva H,
Volume 8, Issue 3 (10-2006)

Background&Objective: Iron deficiency is the most common nutritional disorder in the world, The prevalence rate in developing countries is higher than developed countries, and also affecting a large number of child and women. The main purpose of this study was to promot the knowledge, attitude and practice of girl student in Ghaemshahr in order to prevent iron deficiency anemia. Materials&Methods: This study was an educational intervention to evaluate the effect of education on Knowledge, Attitude and Practice (K.A.P) in intervention and control groups (each group: 300) among female students in Ghaemshahr. The data was gathered using a questionnaire (include the demographic information, some of question related to knowledge, attitude, practice. K.A.P were assessed before and also 1.5 month after implementation of educational program using the questionnaire, collected data was analyzed by SPSS (11.5), STATA (8.0). Results: There was not significant difference between K.A.P in study group before implementation of educational intervention, but there is a significant increase between K.A.P after interventional education in intervention group. Educational intervention was promoted knowledge mounting to 15 score, 5 score to promote attitude and 1.6 score to improve the practice. There was significant relation between mother education, father job with their knowledge and class with their attitude, also mother education with their practice. Conclusion: The results indicated that improvement of knowledge could prevent iron deficiency anemia, thus emphasis on the health education in adolescent age is necessary to promote K.A.P.
Narges Bigom Mirbehbahani, Arezoo Mirfazeli, Mohammad Reza Rabiee, Vahide Kazeminejad, Shahabedin Tavasoli,
Volume 10, Issue 1 (3-2008)

Background & Objective: Preterm infants have less iron storage compared with the term one. Due to rapid growth they need more iron during infancy. This study was designed to evaluate the effect of early iron supplementation on hematologic indices and incidence of iron deficiency anemia in preterm infants. Materials & Methods: This experimental study was done on 20-days-old preterm breast-feed infants referred to the Gorgan-North of Iran primary health care services for vaccination, without any underline disease or growth retardation during 2005. They were divided to two groups (n=15 in each) and a questionnaire was completed for each case. Iron drop (2mg/kg) was given in the interventional group. Iron deficiency anemia was assesed in all sample T-student test and chi-square were used to analyze the independent variables and comparing the hematologic indices, after entering in SPSS-13 software and testing the normal distribution with komologrof-smearnoff test. Relative risk index (RR) was used to compare the two groups. Results: The relative risk of iron deficiency anemia in the interventional group was 0.4 folds [RR=0.4,CI %95 for RR=(0.091,1.749)]. No significant difference was seen between the two groups. Conclusion: The finding of this study showed that iron drop supplementation for preterm infant prevent the iron defeciency anemia, although this observation was not significant.
Ariannejad S, Mohammadian S, Khoddam H, Yasrebi K,
Volume 17, Issue 4 (12-2015)

Background and Objective: Malnutrition is considered as one of most serious disorder in childhood. This study was carried out to determine the prevalence of malnutrition and its relation to serum level of Magnesium, Zinc, Iron and Calcium in 6-36 months hospitalized children. Methods: In this case-control study upon CDC chart, 166 children were in control group diagnosed with no malnutrition and 151 children were also in case group with malnutrition. BMI and serum level of Magnesium, Zinc, Iron and Calcium were measeared for each child. Results: Out of 151 children with malnutrition, 128 (84.76%) and 23 (15.23%) were involved in mild and moderate malnutrition, respectively. The serum level of Magnesium and Zinc in case group was non-significantly lower than controls, while the serum level of Calcium and Iron non-significantly higher than controls. BMI was significantly reduced in cases in compared to controls and this reduction was related with malnutrition (95% CI: 0.38-0.59, OR=0.47, P<0.05). Conclusion: Malnutrition in 6-36 month children was not related to serum level of Zinc, Magnesium, Iron and Calcium, while children with malnutrition had lower body mass index.
M Salehi, S Fatahian, K Shahanipour,
Volume 19, Issue 1 (3-2017)

Background and Objective: Iron oxide nanoparticles have wide applications such as MRI contrast agent and drug delivery. Nevertheless, their effects on human health have not been fully investigated yet. After cellulose, chitin is one of the most abundant organic materials in nature which is widely used in food industry, cosmetics, agriculture, medicine and the environment. This study was done to evaluate the effect of iron oxide nanoparticles coated with chitosan on renal functional indeces in rat.

Methods: In this experimental study, 60 adult female Wistar rats were allocated into 10 equal groups. Concentrations of 50, 100 and 150 mg/kg/bw from chitosan, iron oxide nanoparticles and chitosan coated nanoparticles were intraperitoneally injected into 9 groups and animals in control group were received normal saline. Blood samples were collected directly from the rat heart in the days 15 and 30 post after injection and renal functional indeces including urea, creatinine, uric acid, sodium, potassium and total protein were measured.

Results: There were no significant differences in the level of urea, creatinine, uric acid, sodium, potassium and total protein in the groups whom received chitosan-coated iron oxide nanoparticles compared to control. There was no mortality during the study time.

Conclusion: Short-term using of iron oxide nanoparticles coated with chitosan does not create any toxicity in the rat kidney.

N Hashemi , M Saeidi ,
Volume 19, Issue 2 (7-2017)

Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a chronic inflammatory immune-mediated disease of the central nervous system. Despite extensive investigations, many aspects of etiology and pathophysiology remain unclear. In multiple sclerosis patients, immune system reacts against autologous proteins in the myelin membrane. Most evidences support the hypothesis that both genetic and environmental factors contribute to disease development. But after the failure of genetic findings to explain the reason for the unequal incidence of MS in identical twins, investigators focused further on environmental factors such as vitamin D deficiency, smoking, living in different latitudes and perhaps the most importantly the role of viruses in people whom are genetically susceptible to MS. There is increasing evidence that viruses may play important role in MS pathogenesis following environmental triggers. Recently, studies focused on the role of herpes virus family, especially Epstein-Barr virus, human herpes virus 6 (HHV-6) and Varicella Zoster virus, as the virus is prevalent in society. This review mainly focused on the identification of important viruses with key role in MS the mechanism behind pathogenesis and describes the animal models of MS. The results of researches are shown strong evidence of the virus or antibodies to viral components in active plaques in MS affected patients, but still cannot be stated with certainty that one or more specific viruses are simultaneously trigger the disease. Further studies are required to prove the pathogenesis of viruses in MS.

Danial Bagheri , Reza Ali Mohseni , Seyed Mohammad Sadegh Mahdavi ,
Volume 20, Issue 4 (12-2018)

Background and Objective: Environmental hazards are one of the most important threats to human health. The dramatic increase in population and new lifestyles has led to a variety of environmental problems and outbreaks of illness. This study was conducted to determine the attitude and knowledge in environmental behavior of citizens of Gorgan city, north of Iran.
Methods: This descriptive-analytic study was carried out on 400 people (209 men and 191 women) in Gorgan citizens in northern Iran during 2017. A multi-stage sampling method was used to select the samples. The city of Gorgan was divided into 3 categories according to urban divisions, and the neighborhoods within the classes were considered as clusters. 40% of the neighborhoods were randomly assigned to each study. The instruments used for collecting data were demographic questionnaire and knowledge, attitude and environmental behavior questionnaires.
Results: The level of environmental attitudes and environmental knowledge of the citizens was poor and their Pro-environment behavior was highly valued. Persons with higher age, higher education and level of employment had better environmental behaviors (P<0.05). There was a significant and inverse relationship between environmental attitude and environmental behavior (P<0.05). Increasing
bio-environmental knowledge led to an increase in bio-environmental behavior (P<0.05).
Conclusion: The level of knowledge and environmental attitude of Gorgan citizens was weak and their pro-environmental behaviors were strong.
Mohammad Parastesh , Shahin Omidi, Esfandiar Khosravi Zadeh, Abbas Saremi ,
Volume 23, Issue 1 (3-2021)

Background and Objective: Increased ferritin levels have been implicated in the pathogenesis of diabetes. This study was done to determine the effect of continuous and interval aerobic exercise training on serum ferritin and iron level of induced diabetic rats.
Methods: In this experimental study, 32 wistar rats weighing 205±54 g were randomly allocated into four groups including healthy control, diabetic control, diabetic interval training and diabetic continuous training. The diabetic training groups were received 10 weeks of training following one week after the induction of diabetes by streptozotocin and nicotinamide. Fasting blood sugar ferritin and iron level was measured in each animal.
Results: Induction of diabetes significantly increased serum ferritin and iron levels in diabetic control group compared to healthy control group (P<0.05). Serum ferritin and iron levels and fasting blood sugar significantly reduced in interval aerobic exercise and continuous aerobic training groups compared to diabetic control group (P<0.05). There was not any significant difference in the dependent variables between interval aerobic exercise and continuous aerobic training.
Conclusion: In conclusion, it seems the training of two methods of aerobic interval and continuous training in induced diabetic rats with reduction of serum ferritin and iron levels, as well as improving fasting blood glucose and serum insulin seems to reduce insulin resistance index and improve glycemic status in induced diabetic rats.
Ladan Kia Lashaki , Mohammad Khademloo , Mehrnoosh Kowsarian , Maryam Zarrinkamar , Pejman Khosravi, Peyman Bazazi ,
Volume 24, Issue 1 (3-2022)

Background and Objective: Iron deficiency anemia lead to a decrease in intelegence question (IQ) and a decrease in learning and mental and physical abilities. This study was done to determine the status of iron intake in infants aged 6 to 24 months under the cover of comprehensive health centers in Miandorood city, Mazandaran province, Iran during 2019.
Methods: This descriptive-analytical study was carried out on 400 infants aged 6-24 months who were enrolled in comprehensive health centers in Miandorood city, Mazandaran province, Iran during 2019. The status of iron drop consumption and mothers' awareness in this field were evaluated.
Results: The mean age of the infants was 13.8±4.8 months. The range of the mother’s age was 28.8±5.6 years. Of these, 274 (68.5%) of infants used iron drops regularly, 106 case (26.5%) often, and 20 case (5.0%) never. The mother's knowledge score was significantly correlated with the type of iron intake, height percentile, and maternal education level (P<0.05). Evaluation of the possible causes of irregular iron intake shows that the most frequent cases were forgetting (28.8%), 9.5% for nausea and vomiting, and ‎‎9.0% for teeth color changing.
Conclusion: Mothers' awareness of iron drops consumption was good. The most important barriers to regular iron intake in the present study were forgetfulness, vomiting, and tooth discoloration.
Milad Niknam Azodi , Fatemeh Ostvar , Abolfazl Amjadipour , Sima Besharat , Behfar Taziki , Fahimeh Abdollahi , Seyed Aidin Sajedi ,
Volume 24, Issue 3 (10-2022)

Background and Objective: Stroke has a high prevalence and is associated with a high premature mortality rate. Thus, it is important to identify the effective factors in increasing the incidence of stroke. The aim of this study was to investigate the role of seasonal changes and environmental factors in the occurrence of stroke.
Methods: This descriptive-analytical study was done on 3,639 patients including 3,102 (85.3%) with ischemic stroke, 472 (12.9%) with intracerebral hemorrhage and 65 (1.9%) with subarachnoid hemorrhage patients. After measuring environmental factors such as air temperature, air pressure, humidity and geomagnetic field, admission data of stroke patients between 2015-2019 were extracted from the Sayyad Shirazi Hospital information system.
Results: The mean occurrence of intracerebral hemorrhage was highest in winter, especially in January and March, and lowest in summer, especially in July and August. Intracerebral hemorrhage had a positive significant correlation with air pressure (P=0.001, r=0.452) and a negative correlation with ambient temperature (P<0.001, r= - 0.457). Subarachnoid hemorrhage and ischemia were not related to the season or the month. It was also found that ischemic stroke had a significant positive correlation with geomagnetic field fluctuations. Subarachnoid hemorrhage was not associated with any of the variables, but intracerebral hemorrhage was significantly positively associated with air pressure and inversely associated with temperature.
Conclusion: This study illustrated that winter, low temperature, high air pressure and high geomagnetic fluctuations are associated with a higher risk of stroke. Therefore, the underlying physiopathological causes of this relationship should be carefully investigated in future studies.

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مجله دانشگاه علوم پزشکی گرگان Journal of Gorgan University of Medical Sciences
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