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Showing 15 results for Epidemiology

H. Nooralhhi (m.d), M .rostami (m.d),
Volume 2, Issue 1 (3-2000)

The assessment to bacterial epidemiology in large hospitals help the management of the febrile patients and prescribing the correct kind of antibiotics, before receiving the laboratory results. In a descriptive study during (1996-97) in different hospital departments. The samples were transferred to the laboratory and common bacterias were isolated. In this study, cultural mediums of stool, blood, wound, were used as source the samples the results indicate that, the most common bacteria was E.coli with 30.6%, Staphylococci 14.2% and common infection sites were, urinary 33.3%, blood 21.7% respiratory tracts 14% respectively. The results from this investigation shows that frequency and distribution pattern agrees with those reported by other researchers. The susceptibility of isolated bacteria to Ciprofloxaxin and amino glycosides were quiet high.
B.khodabakhshi (m.d), M.haidari (m.d), M.r.faseli (ph.d), E.ghaemi (ph.d), M.sadeghkarimi (m.d),
Volume 3, Issue 2 (9-2001)

Gastro-enteritis due to Vibrio Cholera was increased suddenly in summer of 1998 in our country. In this research we studied epidemiological and clinical features of Cholerae patients. Vibrio Cholera isolated from 189 (3.3%) patients from 56II stool samples. 182 (96.2%) Vibrio Cholera O1 isolated. 46 (24%) patients with positive stool cultures for Vibrio Cholera were hospitalized. 50% patients were 15-45 yrs. No sex predominency was seen. The important observations in this study including: Fever in 28.1% (13) of patients, sever leukocytosis in 15% (7) of patients, RBC in stool in 33% (15) of patients. Fever and neutrophilia and RBC in stool probably shows co-infection with order intestinal pathogens or different serotypes of Vibrio Cholera with new characteristics. So we are recommending extensive research to be done on serotyping of all of the isolates of Vibrio cholera and other intestinal pathogens simultaneously.
Mr.mohammadi (m.d), M.rahgozar (m.sc), Sa.bagheri Yazdi (m.sc), B.mesgarpour (m.d), Ba.maleki (m.d), Sh.hoseini (m.d), Z.safari (m.sc), F.momeni (m.sc),
Volume 6, Issue 1 (3-2004)

Background & Objective: The burden of psychiatric disorders in the developed countries has been identified by the screening questionnaires and standard clinical interviews at a high level, but the epidemiological studies of psychiatric disorders in our country are brief and their numbers are few. Providing essential mental health services to the people requires us to be knowledgeable about the present status of psychiatric disorders in the society. The objective of their research was to carry out the epidemiological study of the psychiatric disorders in the 18 years and above individuals in the urban and rural areas of Golestan province. Materials & Methods: 518 individuals selected through randomized clustered and systematic sampling methods from among the existing families of Golestan province and the schedule for affective disorders and Schizophrenia (SADS) questionnaires completed by the clinical psychologist. The diagnosis of the disorders was based on DSM-IV classification criteria. Results: The results of the study showed that the prevalence of psychiatric disorders in the province is 14.69%, which was 18.14% in the women, and 11.47% in the men. The mood and affective disorders respectively with 7.93 and 4.05% had the higher prevalence in the province. The prevalence of psychiatric disorders in this study was 0.97%, neuro-cognitive disorders 1.16% and dissociative disorders 0.58%. In the group anxiety disorders, panic disorder with 4.05% of had the higher prevalence and in the group of affective disorder, major depression, hypomanic and manic disorder with 1.93. Conclusion: This study showed that 7.53% of individuals that were studied suffered from at least one of the psychiatric disorders. The prevalence of psychiatric disorders in the province among the individuals in the age group of 41-55 years with 13.04%, separated or divorced individuals 50%, residents of urban areas 11.03%, illiterate individuals 12.75% and housewives 13.04% was more than other individuals in the sample. Being aware of this matter reveals the responsibility of the health policy makers and programmers, prevention, treatment and medical education more than before in relation to preparing application and executive plans in Golestan province for mental health.
Hr.honarmand (phd), F.mansour-Ghanaee (md), S.eshraghi (phd), Mr.khorramizade (phd), Ghr.abdollahpour (phd),
Volume 7, Issue 2 (10-2005)

Background&Objective: Leptospirosis is most widespread Zoonosis in the world and is more prevalent in tropical and temperate regions. In most of Iran, climatologic and ecological conditions are unfavorable for leptospirosis to play an important role as a public health problem. However this does not count for the neglected flat area of Guilan province which presumably represents a region with a high incidence of human leptospirosis. This area has a subtropical climate with mainly farmers as inhabitants. By far the most important agricultural activity is rice farming. Most of farmers used to keep domestic animals in their houses and rodents are abundant. Materials&Methods: To find evidence for a high incidence of leptospirosis in the Guilan province, we collected blood samples from patients who attended one of the three big general hospitals in the province with clinical symptoms consistent with leptospirosis in 2003. All sera were stored at –20c until examination by ELISA and MAT. All patients whose serum had titers ≥160 against at least a pathogenic serovar in MAT and had titer ≥ 1:160 in IgM-ELISA were regarded as confirmed positive cases (70 from 282) and their demographic and epidemiological data were analyzed. Results: Results from our study demonstrate that leptospirosis is mainly a disease of predominantly males (62.5%), occurring in high incidence in villagers (89.5%) during the warm season (100%) notably in September that is time of harvesting (42.90%). Conclusion: In addition it is an occupational disease affecting rice about 90% field workers.
Abdollahy Aa, Bazrafshan Hr, Salehi A, Behnampour N, Hosayni Sa, Rahmany H, Yazdi Kh, Sanagoo A,
Volume 8, Issue 4 (12-2006)

Background&Objective: High blood pressure (BP) is one of the most important health problem world-wide (2005), and risk factor of cardiovascular diseases. This study was determine the prevalence of high blood pressure (BP) among urban subjects in Golestan of province, during 2005. Materials&Methods: This cross sectional study was done on 5000 subjects of 17-70 years old in different towns of Golestan province during 2005. Two equal ratios of both sexes were selected on random clustering sampling in the morning and afternoon. A questionnaire consisting of demographic data and clinical information such as electronic presser gauge filled by trained persons. All of the data analyzed using spss-11.5 and descriptive statistics. Results: The result showed that 2500 male (50%) and 2500 (50%) female, ethenicity were (4.6%) Torkaman, (18.9%), and Sistani (76.4%) Fars group from age of 17 to 70 years old. This study on this basis criterion JNC-5 (46.4%) all of studied subjects had blood pressure normal, (22.6%) blood pressure high normal (21.4%), blood pressure light (7.4%), blood pressure medium and (2.2%) blood pressure severe. Conclusion: The prevalence high blood pressure among the urban population in this province in this province was 31%. Which is slightly higher than other regions in Iran and other part of the world. This issue can be considered in the health planing and theraputic programs in the region.
Kabirzadeh A, Zamani Kiyasari A, Bagherian Farahabadi E, Mohseni Saravi B, Kabirzadeh A, Tavasoli Ashrafi A,
Volume 9, Issue 1 (3-2007)

Background & Objective: Burning is a general health problem and is also a global injury as well as a very serious sanitary issue in industrial and developing countries. In its severe form, burning can claim lives. It seems essential in every society to analyze burning, to study the causes of burning, treatment outcomes and the death rates, etc. to find proper preventive measures. Materials & Methods: In this cross-sectional study, the medical records of all patients who were hospitalized and finally deceased during the years 2002 and 2004 in Zare' teaching hospital, Sari, were examined. Some variables including the age span average, the degree and percentage of burning, patients' residence, gender, the cause of burning (i.e. boiling water, fire, acids and explosives), average hospitalization period, surgery and also the abundance of self – burning attempts were examined. Results: This study indicate that during these 3 years the total number of those who died from burns was 506 (23.4%). The residential places were in Mazanderan province (41.7%), Golestan province (41.4%), and Gilan province (10.2%). The abundance of burning ranges as below: The 2 and 3 degree of burning at 91.8%. Regarding the percentage of burns, 31.7% of abundance pertains to burning at 90% and more. The greatest external causes leading to burns are petrol, gas, and gas oil at 57.9%. Also, the percentage of burns does not have much influence on death rate among 50 – year – olds and older people. Conclusion: This study indicated that the importance of death between burned patient in special sex and age. To establish hospitals, some issues must be considered as: distance, transportation, route dangers, characteristics of area, existing epidemiological survey, and finally the epidemics and event statistics.
Ajalloeian M, Kazemi H, Samar G, Feiz Zadeh A,
Volume 9, Issue 2 (7-2007)

Background&Objective: Hospital infection is one of the important determinants on lengthening hospitalization and increasing the costs and mortality rates in hospitals. Intensive Care Unit (ICU) is one of the wards that are most afflicted with the incidence of this morbidity. This study involves investigating the incidence of infection in one of the Intensive Care Units. Materials&Methods: This study was designed in the form of a prospective cohort which was implemented on patients who were hospitalized in the ICU of Khatamol Anbia Hospital from September 21st 2002 for at least 72 hours and didn’t reveal signs of infection. The status and duration of using tracheal tube, ventilator, urinary catheter, and venous catheter, the duration of hospitalization in ICU and the time infection appeared were all recorded. Results: During the six months spent on this study, 234 patients were hospitalized in ICU, among which 50 patients were investigated. The group of these 50 patients cumulatively spent 528 days in ICU. During their hospitalization, 9 cases of infection occurred in these patients. The incidence of infection was 18% (with a 95% confidence interval of 7.35% to 28.65%). The incidence rate was 17 patients in 1000 person-year of hospitalization in ICU (with a 95% confidence interval of 8.8 to 106.3). Conclusion: Hospital infection is a relatively common complication among patients who have been hospitalized in ICU for at least 3 days. The frequency of infection reported in Iran is equal or more than the results of studies carried out in other parts of the world.
Ali Ahmadi (msc), Ghodratollah Yosefi (bsc),
Volume 10, Issue 2 (6-2008)

Background and Objective: Depression is the most common mood disorder. To assess the incidence and wide spread of depression and associated factor among of Bakhteyari tribal as native population in Chaharmahal and Bahkteyari province, this study was conducted. Materials & Methods: This study was a descriptive and cross-sectional study which was carried out on 400 subjects by using a systematic random sample technique during 2006. Depression was assessed by Beck inventory depressive questionnaire. Data was Analyzed by SPSS-11 Software and t-test , Chi-Square , ANOVA. Results: Mean±SD of depression score in female and male were 18.5±10.8 and 14.9±11.45, respectivly. Depression incidence rate in population was 29.6% (CI 95%: 25.6-33.6). Intermediate and upper degree of depression prevalence was determined to be 24%. The incidence rate of descriptive in female was higher than males (P<0.05). There was a significant relationship between depression in house wife and jobless people (p<0.05). The highest incidence rate was either under 20 years or above 50 years old. Conclusion: This study showed that the depresion rate is higher among the tribe than in other groups in this province.
Mohammad Dadypour (bsc), Rasool Salahi (md), Farzad Ghezelsofla (md),
Volume 11, Issue 1 (3-2009)

Background and Objective: Animal biting is a very important threat for human health, due to the post-infections, such as rabies, which would be fatal. This Study was carried out to determine the epidemiological aspects of animal bites in Kalaleh district, North of Iran. Materials and Methods: In this descriptive and cross sectional study, all cases with animal biting during 2003-05 which were reffred to Kalaleh, Maraveh- tappeh therapy centers in Golestan province North of Iran were considered as sujects of this epidemiological survey. Results: From the totally 3496 biting, during 3 years, 2477 cases (70.9%) were male and 1019 (29.1%) female. The Mean age of cases was 24.2±17.5 and age domain between 1 to 86 was variable. The biting incidence rate was increased during 3 years, as follow 2003, 2004 and 2005 were 745/100000, 787/100000 and 788/100000 respectively. Total incidence was 773/10000 during the 3 years, the most biting frequency belong to the students 1157 (37%). Lower limb was the most common site of biting 2344 (67%). Dog was the common animal in biting 3344 (95.6). Most biting happened in spring season 1042 (29.8%). 3151 cases (90.1%) were living in rural area. 3198 cases (91.5%) and 298 (98.5%) had complete and uncompleted vaccination respectively. Conclusion: According to the results from this survey, the rate of dog biting in Kalaleh district was more than the other region, therefore, it would be important that all concerning organizations interfere to prevent and control this health threat.
Arsang Sh (msc), Kazemnejad A (phd), Amani F (phd),
Volume 13, Issue 3 (10-2011)

Background and Objective: The characterization of any disease have important role for the evaluation and control strategy and programming of diseases. This study was done to determine the epidemiology of Tuberculosis in Iran during 2001-08. Materials and Methods: In this descriptive cross sectional study, Annual percentage change (APC), average annual percentage change (AAPC) of Tuberculosis incidence rate, mortality of Tuberculosis, case detection rate, success percentage in Tuberculosis treatment and relapses cases during 2001-08 have been studied in Iran. Linear segmented regression model was used for analysis trend of Tuberculosis and estimate parameters. Results: The trend of Tuberculosis smear positive (SP) incidence rate was reduced in Iran during 2001-08. Anually, 4.1% and 3.6% reduction took place in incidence rate and relapses cases, respectively. Tuberculosis mortality decreased annually by 6.8% and success in case detection increased by 2.5%. The Tuberculosis treatment though AAPC is decreasing by 0.5%. The trend of Tuberculosis are higher among women and in both sexes over 65 years of age. Conclusion: This study showed that trend of SP pulmonary tuberculosis and treatment success rate is decreased, but case detection was increased.
M Qorbani , F Cheraghali , A Sofizadeh , Ah Yapang Gharavi , M Cherabin , M Yapang Gharavi ,
Volume 19, Issue 2 (7-2017)

Visceral leishmaniasis, also known as Kala-azar, is one of the main parasitic vector borne diseases, which transmitted by sand fly. The current study reported the seven positive cases of Kala-azar in Maravetapeh county in Golestan province, Iran from 2007-15. Using geographic information system, villages which had confirmed cases of Kala-azar were identified and their geographical information was registered. Villages with confirmed cases of Kala-azar were introduced as at risk villages for visceral leishmaniasis. All of these cases were aged under 6 years and in all of them fever and splenomegaly was reported. All subjects had lower normal range of hemoglobin and plateles. These cases were reported from 6 villages in 3 districts of Maraveh Tapeh County. All of these villages are in hot and dry areas of county and they have mountainous and semi-mountainous geographical status with higher altitude compare to other villages. Fifty two villages of county were recognized as at-risk villages for Kala-azar. Kala-azar presented in sporadic condition in Maravetapeh County. Continuous case finding of Kala-azar for early diagnosis and treatment is necessary.

Hamidreza Khorshidi , Sajjad Daneshyar, Zeynab Sadat Eslami , Abbas Moradi ,
Volume 21, Issue 2 (7-2019)

Background and Objective: Trauma is the third cause of death and the main cause of disability in Iran. Children are more susceptible to trauma due to physiological conditions and the growth process. This study was done to evaluate the epidemiolog of pediatric trauma in Hamedan, Iran during 2016-2017.

Methods: This descriptive-analytical study was done on 482 traumatic children (330 boys, 152 girls) at the age of 0 to 14 years whom referred to Besat Hospital in Hamedan, Iran during April 2016 to March 2017. Age, gender, season, type of troma and the outcome of trouma were recorded for each subject.

Results: The highest rate of trauma was observed between the ages of 7-14 years old (40.5%). The rate of trauma was significantly higher in boys than the girls (P<0.05). The most rate of trauma occured in summer (36.9%). The most common, place, cause, type, region of traumas were home (44%), falling down (53%), fracture (35%), and region (41%) respectively. Regarding the subsequence of discharge of subjects, 10 deaths and 42 disabilities after trauma were observed.

Conclusion: Regarding the most common type and place of accidents, providing safety at home and knowledge of parents are nesscery for preventing of pediatric teruma in Iran.

Siamak Razaei, Mohammad Hossein Taziki, Nasser Behnampour , Reza Shahsavani , Seyyed Shfie Shafiepour ,
Volume 22, Issue 1 (3-2020)

Background and Objective: Due to high incidence and mortality of gasteric cancer and important of clinical symptoms to early diagnosis and tertment; this stady was done to determine the survival rate of gasteric cancer in Golestan provience (north of Iran).
Methods: This retrospective cohort stady was done on 131 patients (77.9% males and 22.1% females) with adeno carcinoma gasteric cancer wich diagosed during 2007-09 in northern Iran. Age, sex, job, nationality and tribe clincal presentation kind of treatment food regiemns, survival collected from archive. In cases whom nesacery data completed with telophone calling or face to face interview. Survival rate of patients for 1, 3 and 5 years were determined using caplan Mayer method.
Results: First symptom in 31.3% of patients was abdominl pain and distance between the first symptom and diagnosis was 1-14 months. 34.4% of patient did not receive any treatment. Survivial rate for 1, 3 and 5 years was 37.4%, 13% and 6.1%, respectively. Age, gender and ethnicity did not not altere survival rate but type of treatment had significant relation to survival rate (P<0.05).
Conclusion: The diagnosis of gasteric cancer in early stage and surgical treatment can help a better survival rate in patients with adeno carcinoma gasteric cancer in northern Iran.
Hajiieh Bibi Razeghi-Nasrabad , Meimanat Hosseini-Chavoshi, Mohammad Jalal Abbasi-Shavazi ,
Volume 24, Issue 1 (3-2022)

Background and Objective: Infertility is one of the issues that affect many aspects of infertile couples. In this study current infertility in Tehran province is estimated based on clinical, epidemiological and demographic definitions.
Methods: This descriptive-analytical study was performed on 669 women with a spouse aged 15-49 in Tehran, Iran during 2020. Data were collected by using a valid researcher-made questionnaire.
Results: Prevalence of current infertility by clinical, epidemiological and demographic definitions was 9.6%, 8.1% and 5.8%, respectively. As expected, primary infertility is lower (2%-4%) than secondary infertility (1.8%-6.4%). Some couples become infertile after their first pregnancy and the birth of their first child. Infertility has a significant relationship with age (P<0.05), age in the first marriage (P<0.05) and socio-economic statuse (P<0.05).
Conclusion: Current primary infertility is relatively low and normal, but secondary infertility is high. Focus on lifetime infertility shows higher rates of infertility than current infertility in Tehran, Iran.
Mohammad Reza Mohammadi , Shayan Mahdikia ,
Volume 25, Issue 3 (10-2023)

Background and Objective: Because of tissue variety, signs, symptoms, and higher mortality and morbidity, central nervous system (CNS) tumors are of special importance in diagnosis and treatment. Knowledge of the epidemiology of these tumors helps with health system planning. This study aimed to obtain more data on the epidemiologic specifications of these neoplasms.
Methods: This descriptive-analytical study focuses on 141 patients (58 Male and 83 female) with CNS tumors who visited the 5th Azar Hospital, Gorgan, Iran, during 2013-17. All the data were obtained from hospital medical records in the Neurosurgery and Oncology Department. All demographic data were recorded, such as age, sex, tumor type, signs, symptoms, and risk factors. In cases with incomplete data, the files were completed with interviews and phone calls.
Results: The tumors in 94 (66.6%) patients were benign, and 47 (33.3%) patients had malignant and metastatic tumors. The most common signs were headache (n=43, 30.5%) and convulsion (n=24, 17%). No relationship was found between CNS tumors, diabetes mellitus, hypertension, and hyperlipidemia.
Conclusion: Regarding the high mortality of CNS tumors, early adequate attention to signs and symptoms helps earlier diagnosis. However, more studies on larger samples are needed to find more risk factors.

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مجله دانشگاه علوم پزشکی گرگان Journal of Gorgan University of Medical Sciences
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