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Showing 14 results for Aging

Javanshir Kh (msc), Mohseni-Bandpei Ma (phd), Amiri M (phd), Rezasoltani A (phd), Rahgozar M (phd),
Volume 12, Issue 1 (3-2010)
Abstract

Background and Objective: Muscle size is considered to be a good indicator of muscle function. Previous studies demonstrated a major role for longus colli muscle in cervical spine stabilization. This study was designed to compare muscle size and shape of cervical longus colli muscle between patients with bilateral chronic neck pain and healthy subjects. Materials and Methods: In this case – control study, bilateral ultrasound images of longus colli muscle, 2 centimeters below the thyroid cartilage were taken in 20 subjects (10 males and 10 females) with bilateral chronic neck pain and in 20 healthy subjects during 2008. Cross sectional area (cm2) and muscle shape ratio (ratio between lateral and anterior posterior dimensions) were measured. T- test was used for comparison of cross sectional area and shape ratio of right and left sides between the two groups. Results: In healthy subjects the cross sectional area of longus colli muscle in right and left sides were 0.85±0.11 and 0.86±0.12 respectively which was greater than that of neck pain patients: 0.76±0.11 and 0.68±0.07 respectively (P<0.05). In addition, longus colli muscle shape ratio of healthy subjects in right and left sides was 1.18±0.17 and 1.16±0.19 respectively which was smaller than that of neck pain patients: 1.50±0.25 and 1.50±0.27 respectively (P<0.05). Conclusion: This study showd that patients with bilateral chronic neck pain had generally smaller cross sectional area and larger shape ratio of longus colli compared to controls.
Nickfarjam A (msc), Shokrani P (phd), Emami H (md), Monadi S (msc), Ganjalikhan Hakemi E (msc),
Volume 12, Issue 1 (3-2010)
Abstract

Background and Objective: Several organization such as AAPM (American Association of Physicist in Medicine), ACR (American College of Radiology), ACMP (American College of Medical Physics) and ESTRO (European Society for Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology) recommended the need for periodic quality control procedure in radiation oncology. One of the best methods for quality control is in vivo dosimetry, while radiotherapy is performed. The aim of this study was to design and optimiz a protocol for the quality control of radiation treatment of patients with head and neck malignancy. Materials and Methods: In this case series study midle line dose was measured in vivo in conjunction with portal imaging in 19 patients that were treated using a Co-60 unit, in August and December 2007. Distribution of entrance and exit dose was determined using two diodes, off axis ratios and portal imaging together with a user code written in MATLAB. User code was applied to convert optical intensity of portal film to optical density. Midline dose was calculated in one centimeter intervals using entrance and exit dose with the Huyskens algorithm method. Results: The midline dose was calculated in 165 points. The mean and standard deviation between measured and prescribed dose was about 4.27±3.61%. In 110 points (66.66%), the deviation was less than 5% (2.27±1.37), in 41 points (24.84%) the mean deviation was between 5 and 10% (6.51±1.2) and in 14 points (8.48%) mean deviation was more than 10% (13.37±2.34). The maximum and minimum deviations were found in center of the field (2.6±1.63) and 5cm away from center of the field (7.24±4.86) respectively. Maximum and minimum deviations correspond to the equivalent field of 14cm2 (5.08±3.53) and 8cm2 (2.95±2.13) respectively. Conclusion: This study showed that using a portal detector in conjunction with two diodes is a simple and accurate method for daily quality control in radiotherapy. The data is acquired in this way can be used for evaluating the accuracy of treatment steps including determination of output of a treatment machine, quality control of a treatment planning system and precision of calculations and patient setup.
Ehsani Ardakani Mj (md), Yazdani S (md), Noorinayer B (md), Emadian L (md), Shokravi Ah (md), Gharaee M (md),
Volume 14, Issue 2 (6-2012)
Abstract

Background and Objective: The staging of gastrointestinal cancer has an important role in the treatment of tumor. This study was done to determine the efficacy of endosonography method for determining the stage and deepth of esophagus and stomach cancers. Materials and Methods: In this descriptive study, endosonographic staging was performed in 23 patients (15 male and 8 female) with esophagus and stomach cancers, confirmed with pathologic findings in Taleghani hospital, Tehran, Iran during 2002-04. The results of surgical staging compared to preoperative endosonographic method. Results: Mean age of 23 patients was 57.2 years (43-72 years). 30% and 70% of the patients had esophageal and gastric cancers, respectively. The accuracy of endosonographic staging of esophagus and stomach cancers was 82%. The accuracy of diagnosis, positive and negative predictive value of cancers in assessment of the depth of the tumor by endosonography procedure were 79.4%, 69.6% and 84.9%, respectively. Conclusion: Endosonography is a precise method for evaluating depth and staging of tumor and lymph node involvement.
Barzin M, Abdi R, Golmohammadi H,
Volume 14, Issue 3 (10-2012)
Abstract

Background and Objective: Internal derangement of knee (IDK) is a common problem following knee trauma. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) extensively is used to diagnose the ligamentous and meniscal injuries, but the use of ultrasonography remains controversial. Previous studies showed different results about the usefulness of sonography (IDK). This study was done to determine diagnostic accuracy of ultrasonography in comparison with magnetic resonance imaging in patients with knee trauma. Materials and Methods: This descriptive study was done on internal knee disorders of 73 patients with knee trauma who referred to MRI center of Imam Khomeini hospital in Sari, Iran during 2009-10. Three radiologists independently reported the ultrasonography and MRI of the patients. Results: The study population comprised of 61 (83.6%) men and 12 (16.4%) women, 91.9% of patients were less than 40 years old. The joint pain was the most common complaint (89%). The sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive value of ultrasonography for the lateral meniscus was 100%, 97.14%, 60%, 100%, for the medial meniscus were 61.90%, 94.23% ,81.25%, 85.96%, for the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) was 65%, 100%, 100%, 70.21% and for the medial collateral ligament (MCL) was 100%, 94.28, %42.86 and 100%. Conclusion: This study showed that the high specificity of ultrasonography as a noninvasive and inexpensive method to exclude the ACL and meniscal lesion. Ultrasonography can reasonably be applied for screening of internal derangement of knee in the absence of MRI, especially in urgent conditions. In clinical setting of highly suspicious of ACL and meniscal tear, MRI is preferred due to low sensitivity of sonography.
Farshchian N (md), Razazian N (md), Rezaei M (phd), Livani S (md),
Volume 14, Issue 4 (12-2012)
Abstract

Background and Objective: Although multiple sclerosis is a disease affecting white matter of brain and spinal cord, but involvement of basal ganglions in some studies demonstrated a decrease in T2 sequence signals. This study was done to assess signal intensity of basal ganglions in T2 magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in multiple sclerosis Materials and Methods: This case – control study was done on 30 multiple sclerosis patients and 30 controls in Imam Reza hospital, Kermanshah, Iran, during 2010. MRI images of multiple sclerosis of patients and control group were matched according to age and sex. The basal ganglia signals were identified based on involvement areas, number of plaques, and brain atrophy in T2 and flair sequences. Data were analyzed using SPSS-16, Chi-Square, Fisher exact test and independent t-tests. Results: Among the case group, 10 patients (33.3%) demonstrated low signals in right thalamus and 14 patients (46.7%) in left thalamus, which was statistically significant compared with control group (P<0.001). The presence of plaques in right and left globus pallidus was observed in 4 (13.3%) and 7 patients (23.3%) respectively. The presence of plaques in right and left thalamus was observed in 10 patients (33.3%) and 14 patients (46.7%) respectively, which was significant compared with control group (P<0.001). The presence of brain atrophy was observed in 18 patients (60%) in case groups and in one patient (3.3%) in control group (P<0.001). Conclusion: This study indicated that reduction of T2 signals in thalamus is a valuable finding in multiple sclerosis patients and it may facilitate the diagnosis of multiple sclerosis.
Farshchian N, Farshchian N, Ashraf Falah A ,
Volume 16, Issue 1 (3-2014)
Abstract

Background and Objective: The vertebra is the most common site of bone metastases. Diagnosis of metastases particularly in the early stages can improve patients’ prognosis and therapy. This study was done to compare the diagnostic value of magnetic resonance imaging and bone scan for the diagnosis of vertebral metastases. Methods: This descriptive study was done on 43 patients with any types of primary cancer. Patients underwent spinal magnetic resonance imaging and nuclear scan. Bone scan results were considered as the gold standard. The sensitivity and specificity were calculated for magnetic resonance imaging and nuclear scan. Results: The magnetic resonance imaging diagnosed 19 cases of thoracic vertebral metastases which previously diagnosed as negative by bone scan. Sensitivity and specificity of magnetic resonance imaging compared to bone scan was 90.7% and 95.6%, respectively. The magnetic resonance imaging diagnosed 4 cases of lumbar vertebral metastases which were reported negative in bone scan. Sensitivity, specificity and accuracy of magnetic resonance imaging in compare to bone scan were 97.6%, 97% and 97.2%, respectively. Conclusion: In diagnosis of vertebral metastases, the magnetic resonance imaging is more sensitive than bone scan.
M Habibian , N Sobhi ,
Volume 19, Issue 2 (7-2017)
Abstract

Background and Objective: Aging eldely is associated with impaired angiogenesis, glomerulosclerosis and increased susceptibility to nephrotoxic injury. This study was done to compare the independent and combined effect of aerobic exercise and garlic extract on the levels of renal vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1) in eldely rats.

Methods: In this experimental study, 35 aged eldely male Wistar rats were randomly allocated into 5 groups including control, sham, garlic (2.5 g/kg/bw), aerobic exercise, garlic plus exercise. The animals exercised by swimming training at 5 min to 60 min per day, 3 days a week over 8 weeks. Animals in garlic plus exercise were received garlic extract (2.5 g/kg/bw) and swimming training. The renal TGF-β1 and VEGF level were evaluated by ELIZA method.

Results: 8 weeks swimming training, garlic supplementation and the combined intervention were associated with a significant increased the renal VEGF and reduced TGF-β1 level (P<0.05). There was no difference between swimming training, garlic supplementation and garlic plus exercise on renal VEGF and TGF-β1 levels in aged rats.

Conclusion: It seems that the protective role of regular swimming training, garlic supplementation and the combined intervention in the renal aging process meight in part be related to their ability to attenuate TGF- β1 and up regulating VEGF.


Maryam Rezapour , Babak Massoum , Elham Banimostafavi , Seyyed Hamzeh Hosseini ,
Volume 20, Issue 1 (3-2018)
Abstract

Obsessive-compulsive disorder is manifested by a group of symptoms including intrusive thoughts, rituals, mental obsessions and compulsions which creates great distress for the individual. Traumatic brain injurie known as one of the rare reasons of obsessive-compulsive disorder. This report is about 3 patients that suffer from obsessive-compulsive disorder after a traumatic brain injury and loss of consciousness. All 3 patients had no sign of obsessive-compulsive disorder before the trauma. Information on these reports, examine the relationship between obsessive-compulsive disorder and traumatic brain injury. Findings from the neuroimaging methods for these patients have been reported. In this study, all the reported cases that had sever traumatic brain injuries were assessed by neuroimaging methods and brain injuries were obsereved in the right temporal in first case, in the right temporal and both frontal sides in second case, in the splenium corpus callosum and the right brain tegmentums and diffused axonal injury and extra-axial hematoma in the left temporal lobein the thirtd patient. Based on the findings of this study obsessive-compulsive disorder can rarely be developed after a traumatic brain injury and by assessing the neuroimaging findings, we can conclude that there is a relationship between the brain injuries and the symptoms of obsessive-compulsive.
Behrouz Baghaiee , Marefat Siahkouhian , Pouran Karimi , Ana Maria Botelho Teixeira , Saeed Dabagh Nikookheslat ,
Volume 20, Issue 2 (7-2018)
Abstract

Aging is an inevitable process, which is associated with the development of various diseases such as cardiac hypertrophy. Hypertrophy can occur in both pathological and physiological form. Both types can be divided into a variety of eccentric and concentric types. In the present review, we present the effects of aging and exercise on patological and physioligac cardiac hypertrophy, oxidative stress and some of the mitogen-activated protein kinases with using 79 articles which acceable in pubmed and SID indexing which published during 1976-2016. If the age is associated with inactivity, leads to pathological heart hypertrophy. Meanwhile, the role of the protein family of kinases activated with mitogen and oxidative stress is important. Adolescence, if accompanied by low activity, can lead to increase oxidative stress through mitochondrial dysfunction. Oxidative stress can affect the activity of MAPKs. MAPKs have important role in wide variety of biological events, such as proliferation, differentiation, metabolism, mobility, survival and apoptosis. The tipping point of signal transduction and the regulation of these biological events bigin initially by the four MAPK subunits, including extracellular signal regulated kinase (ERK1 / 2), c-Jun NH2-terminal kinase (JNK1, -2.3) kinase P38 (A, B, y, S) and large MAPKs (BMKs or ERK5s). This paper focuses on two types of ERK1 / 2 and P38 that play an important role in the development of cardiac hypertrophy. ERK1 / 2 and P38 amounts change with aging. These changes are associated with the development of pathological hypertrophy. Sports activities can control the pathological pathway of hypertrophy and can lead to physiological hypertrophy. Exercise can control or reduce oxidative stress, ERK1 / 2 and P38 and ultimately can affect cardiac hypothyroidism.
Arezoo Eskandari, Mohamad Fashi , Amir Bahador Dakhili ,
Volume 21, Issue 2 (7-2019)
Abstract

Background and Objective: Age is the greatest risk factor for cardiovascular disease that is associated with shortens telomere. TRF2 and TERT genes expression in heart tissue   reduce in elderly. These geness are associated with shortens telomere. Exercise can play a useful role in maintaining the length of telomeres. This study was carry out to determine the effect of high intensity interval training (HIIT) and continuous endurance training on TRF2 and TERT gene expression in heart tissue of aged male rats.

Methods: In this experimental study 24 adult aged male rats (88-96 weeks, 363±12 g) allocated into three groups including control, endurance training (5 sessions per week: with 60-70 of maximum speed of group) and HIIT (5 sessions per week: 80 percent in the first and second week, 90% maximum speed of the third week, 100 % until the end of the exercise for 6 weeks). Gene expression of TRF2 and TERT were assessment by Real-time - PCR and the quantification of gene expression levels using the Pfaffl formula.

Results: TRF2 gene significantly increased in HIIT and CET groups in compared to control group (P<0.05). TERT gene non- significantly increased in HIIT and CET groups in compared to the control group.

Conclusion: It seems, 6 weeks of high-intensity interval training and continuous endurance training to be able regulate the growth and longevity of the heart cells by maintaining the length telomere by increasing TRF2 gene expression.


Rahman Soori , Mohsen Gerami , Parisa Pornemati , Arezoo Eskandari ,
Volume 21, Issue 2 (7-2019)
Abstract

Background and Objective: Aging is associated with increased free radical production. On the other hand, sports activities with the improvement of antioxidant system can reduce the damage caused by aging. This study was performed to determine the effect of the coantinus training (MCT) and high intensity interval training (HIIT) on antioxidant enzymes in the heart of old rats.

Methods: This experimental study was performed on 24 male Wistar rats aged 22-24 months. After two weeks of adaptation, animals were allocated into three groups including HIIT (8 rats: 100-80% maximum speed), MCT (8 rats: 65-70% maximum speed) and control group (8 rats the control group did not receive any intervention during the study. The training protocol was performed 5 days in week for 6 weeks. The heart tissues of rats were extracted 48 hours after the last training session. Gene Expression of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GPX) was analyzed by the ELISA test.

Results: SOD was significantly increase in MCT (41.26±3) and HIIT (48.8±6) groups in compare to control (22.62±2) (P<0.05). GPX was significantly increased in MCT (1.96±0.07) and HIIT (2.28±0.03) groups in comparision with controls (1.37±0.04) (P<0.05) and this increase was higher in the HIIT group than in continuous training group.

Conclusion: Continues training and high intensity interval training increase the amount of antioxidant enzymes in heart tissue of aging rats.


Razie Sadat Hosseiny , Ameneh Mollaei , Masoumeh Alijanpour Aghamaleki ,
Volume 25, Issue 3 (10-2023)
Abstract

Background and Objective: Gerotranscendence, as a component of spiritual health, influences their quality of life and adaptation to chronic diseases by creating meaning in life. It is an important approach to enhancing the dimensions of aging health. This study was conducted to determine the relationship between gerotranscendence and quality of life in the elderly with cancer.
Methods: This descriptive-analytical study was performed on 200 older adults with cancer who were selected from Firouzgar and Rasool Akram medical centers in Tehran, Iran, during 2021. The checklist of demographic characteristics, the Gerotranscendence Scale (GTS), and the quality of life questionnaire (LEIPAD) were used.
Results: Gerotranscendence had a statistically significant relationship with marital status, level of education, employment status, housing status, type of cancer, and type of treatment (P<0.05). Age had a statistically significant negative correlation with the quality of life (r=-0.206). Gerotranscendence also had a statistically significant positive correlation with the dimensions of quality of life (r=0.221, P=0.002), including depression and anxiety (r=0.146, P=0.04), mental performance (r=0.167, P=0.018), social performance (r=0.266, P<0.001), and satisfaction with life (r=0.256, P<0.001).
Conclusion: Increasing gerotranscendence increases the quality of life of the elderly.


Zahra Safavibayat , Nadereh Naderiravesh , Malihe Nasiri , Majid Daneshfar ,
Volume 25, Issue 3 (10-2023)
Abstract

Background and Objective: Loneliness is one of the problems experienced by the aging population, and the lack of social communication plays a major role in the emergence of loneliness. This study was conducted to determine the effects of telenursing on the loneliness of the elderly.
Methods: This field trial was conducted on 100 elderly people over 60 years of age who were selected by convenience sampling from the clients of Gonabad (Iran) community health centers during 2017. The elderly participants were randomly assigned to 2 groups of 50 people, intervention and control. Then, the demographic information questionnaire, the Informant Questionnaire for Cognitive Decline in the Elderly, and Dehshiri et al.'s Loneliness Scale were completed. The intervention group received face-to-face training by the researcher for 2 hours. There was no intervention for the control group, and the elderly received routine care from the family health unit. After the face-to-face meeting, phone calls were made by the researcher to the intervention group for 12 weeks. One month after the end of the intervention, the questionnaires were completed again by the two groups and evaluated and compared.
Results: The mean (standard deviation) score of loneliness was 60.82±21.07 and 57.48±18.76 before the intervention in the intervention and control groups, respectively, and this value after the intervention was 35.06±14.20 and 61.40±18.72, respectively, in the intervention and control groups. After the intervention, a statistically significant difference was found in terms of a reduction in the loneliness score of the elderly in the intervention group compared to the control group (P<0.05).
Conclusion: This study showed that telenursing was effective in reducing the loneliness of the elderly.


Fatemeh Aghaei , Majid Vahidian-Rezazadeh , Keyvan Hejazi*,
Volume 26, Issue 1 (3-2024)
Abstract

Background and Objective: Oxidative stress can harm cells, proteins, and DNA and play a role in the aging process. The present study was conducted to determine the impacts of six weeks of Pilates exercises and Lycium barbarum supplement on oxidative stress indices of saliva and body composition of inactive elderly females.
Methods: This field trial was carried out on 49 inactive elderly females. The subjects were selected in a purposeful manner and were randomly assigned to 4 groups, including control, supplement, exercise, and exercise plus supplement. The exercise program protocol was implemented for six weeks, three 45-60 minute sessions per week with an intensity of 50-70% maximum heart rate. The Lycium barbarum supplement group used 14 g of supplement daily. Oxidative stress indices of saliva and body composition were compared. The individuals’ physical activity level was determined using the Kaiser Physical Activity Survey (KPAS) and the samples’ health status was specified using the Physical Activity Readiness Questionnaire (PAR-Q).
Results: The amount of malondialdehyde had a statistically significant reduction in the exercise plus supplement group compared to the control group, the exercise group, and the supplement group (P<0.05). The amount of malondialdehyde was not statistically significant in the exercise group and the supplement group compared to the control group. The amount of salivary catalase was not statistically significant in the exercise group plus supplement group compared to the control group, the exercise group, and the supplement group. The amount of salivary catalase had a statistically significant increase in the exercise group compared to the control group and the supplement group (P<0.05). The amount of glutathione peroxidase had no statistically significant difference in the exercise plus supplement group compared to the control group but had a statistically significant increase compared to the supplement group (P<0.05). The amount of glutathione peroxidase had a statistically significant increase in the exercise group than in the supplement group (P<0.05).
Conclusion: Regular exercise with moderate intensity and Lycium barbarum supplement resulted in improved antioxidant function and body composition in inactive elderly females.



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مجله دانشگاه علوم پزشکی گرگان Journal of Gorgan University of Medical Sciences
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