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Showing 36 results for Stress

A.r.kholdbarin (m.d), P.soltani (m.d),
Volume 3, Issue 1 (3-2001)
Abstract

In a randomized study we compared postoperative pain and analgesic requirement in patients who underwent elective cesarean section under general anesthesia induced with Thiopental 4 mg/kg (N=25) or Ketamin 1 mg/kg (N=25). Anesthesia was maintained with N2O and Halothane. Postoperative pain was measured with OPS scale and analgesia was provided with Morphine. Median time to first need of analgesic was greater in Ketamine group compared with Thiopental group. Median Morphine consumption over 24 hour was less in Ketamine group compared with Thiopental group. No patient had recall of intraoperative events in Ketamine group however in Thiopental group 12% of patients had such recalls. Apgar score was similar between groups. Induction of anesthesia for cesarean section using Ketamine is associated with a lower postoperative analgesic requirement compared with Thiopental. Patients who had anesthesia for cesarean section induced with Ketamine required less analgesic drugs in the first 24 hours postoperative period compared with patients who received Thiopental. Ketamin unlike Thiopental has analgesic properties that may reduce sensitization of pain pathways and extend into post-operative period.
Sh. Alimohammadei (m.d),
Volume 4, Issue 1 (3-2002)
Abstract

Urinary incontinence is defined as involuntary loss of urine, which is a social and hygienic problem. The study is about quantity of stress incontinence in high school 15-17 years old girl during (1999-2000). This is a descriptive cross-section study. From 711 cases, 454 (76.4%) did not have urine stress incontinence (USI) and 166 (23.6%) had this problem. From these 166 members 24.1% were 15 years old, 35.8% were 16 years old and 40.1% were 17 years old. Therefore with increasing age we have more urine stress incontinence and the most prevalence of USI occur during laughing predisposing factor for USI is urinary tract infection (UTI) and trauma to hip. 27% of these girl’s mothers had USI and the population was chosen by cluster sampling. Therefore genetic factor could be a cause. The most presentation of USI is in the estrogenic phase and we didn’t have any USI report in the progestronic phase. According to our results the incidence of USI among 15-17 year girls students was 23.6%.
Sh.kolakari (m.sc), A.sanakoo (m.sc), F.mirkarimei (m.sc), N.behnampour (m.sc),
Volume 4, Issue 2 (9-2002)
Abstract

Stress is applied to the collection of somatic, emotional and mental reaction, which can disturbed the equilibrium in human beings. One type of stress is work in dependent stress environment, which can affects on personnel due to its internal stressful factor. The object of this research is to investigate the rate of stress in operating room personnel and its relationship with some relevant factors. The present study has been done on 104 personnel of operating room in hospitals belong to the Gorgan Medical Sciences University. The tools for collection data were questionnaire, which contained demographical variables, physical and mental environment stress factors in operating room life stress scale. The results from this investigation indicated that 54.4% of all personals had a mild stress. The stress factors present in the operation room were inconvenient smells the highest with 76% uncooperated team work was the other factor with 29.7% and personnel equipment was (42.6%) it become clear from this investigation that there is a reverse between stress and demographical variables, of stress has a meaningful relationship with age (P=0.01) and years of service in the operation room which means as the age and working in the operation room increased the level of stress decreased. According to the results from this investigation it is suggested therefore to use the old and well-experienced staff to work in the operation room to avoid such problems.
Z.razavi (m.d), I.ramezani (m.d),
Volume 5, Issue 1 (3-2003)
Abstract

Background and Objective: Stress hyperglycemia (Transient rise of blood sugar during acute physiologic stress) has been reported in adults in conditions such as trauma, burns, stroke, myocardial infraction and patients admitted for any cause in intensive care unit. In pediatric age group stress hyperglycemia occurs in febrile illness and sever gastroenteritis. Prevalence and importance of stress hyperglycemia is not fully appreciated by physicians. This study was designed to find the frequency of stress hyperglycemia in children and infants admitted in Qaem Hospital and comparing it with other studies in Iran and other countries. Physicians’ knowledge about these phenomena prevents unnecessary and sometimes dangerous intervention. Patients with stress hyperglycemia due to acute clinical illness may be at risk of developing diabetes in future and their follow up is important matter. Materials and Methods: This descriptive cross-sectional study was conducted from March 2001 to May 201 on 334 patients admitted in Qaem Hospital who needed blood sampling for diagnostic tests. Known cases of diabetes mellitus and patients who received corticosteroids or beta-agonist agent and dextrose containing intravenous fluids were excluded from study. Blood sugar was determined by glucose oxidas method. On serum samples within 30 minute-1 hour after blood sampling. Hyperglycemia was defined in our study as blood sugar more than 150 mg/dl, fever as 37.5°C auxiliary temperature, and dehydration status defined as criteria of WHO. Results: 334 patients from age 2 days to 14 years had inclusion criteria, of these 59.5% were male and 40.4% were female. 26.3% of patients had variable degrees of dehydration. 23.7% of patients had auxiliary temperature?38.5°C to 40°C. blood sugar were in the range of 37 mg/dl-325 mg/dl and there was stress hyperglycemia in 17 patients (5.1%). Stress hyperglycemia was obviously more observed in patients with higher temperatures, more sever dehydration or clinical deterioration. There was no case of diabetes mellitus throughout 1-year follow up. Conclusion: Stress hyperglycemia is a relatively frequent clinical and laboratory finding in patients admitted in pediatrics and neonatal wards. There is no relation between the stress hyperglycemia and final diagnosis of patients, however the more serious the clinical condition, the higher the temperatures or more sever dehydration rises the likelihood of stress hyperglycemia.
A.alipour (phd), Sm.siadati (md),
Volume 8, Issue 2 (7-2006)
Abstract

Background & Objective: Examinations are among the most important stressors in schools and universities that result to psycho physiological outcomes but these effects on children has not been paid much attention. This study was done to determine the effect of stress of final examinations on the activation of hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal axis (change of salivary cortisol) and autonomous nervous system (pulse rate) in children. Materials & Methods: A total of 100 children (50 boys, 50 girls) in 5th grade aged less than 12 years from two primary schools of five educational district in Tehran were chosen randomly. The subjects completed Adolescent’s Eysenck personality inventory. Physical and mental health was reviewed the medical history, clinical examinations and after controlling sleep, food, drug and sport variables, salivary samples and pulse rates were taken five times as follows: once a week before and then three times through mathematics, history and science exams and once a week after passing the exams at 9 to 10 am .Salivary cortisol samples were analysed by ELISA method. Results: Cortisol levels increased significantly during examinations in compare with cortisol levels before and after examinations. Depending to sex, psychoticism, neuroticism and extroversion –introversion variables, only the effect of psychoticism and extroversion –introversion are statistically significant (P<0.05). Also repeated analysis of variance for pulse rate indicated the increase rate of later factor (P<0.05). Conclusion: Final examinations as a stressor resource increase salivary cortisol and pulse rates of children. Personality factors can modulate the effect of examinations on salivary cortisol. Sex also modulates pulse rates increasing during academic examinations.
Hamid N,
Volume 8, Issue 3 (10-2006)
Abstract

Background&Objective: Stress in managers will effect and destroy the immune system on mental health. Clinical studies have revealed that, social support is one of the moderating factors of negative effect of stress on immune system. The aim of this research was study the correlation between social support and immune system of high school managers in khozestan province. Materials&Methods: An experimental study was conducted on 360 male and femal managers who were participated. Then randomly two groups (n=80 in each group) of low and high social support were selected. Subjects who suffered from disorders that affected the immune system were excluded. Number of T-helper cells (CD4), T-suppressor cytotoxic cell (CD8), Natural killer cells (CD56+CD16), Complement system (C3,C4,CH50), Immunoglobulin M and G (IgM&IgG), cortisol hormone, Eosinophils, Neutrophils and Lymphocytes were measured. Results: There was a significant positive correlation between social support and CD4, CD4/CD8, NK cell (CD56+CD16), CH50, IgM and Neutrophils. Also there was a significant negative correlation between social support and CD8, cortisol and Eosinophils. There was a significant difference between high and low social support managers in CD4, CD4/CD8, CD8, cortisol, CH50, C4, C3 and Lymphocytes. Conclusion: The results indicated that social support has a positive significant correlation with those immune cells that improve the immune system and has a negative correlation with those immune cells that decerase the immune system. In fact the social support is a moderating factor angainst stress and its negative effects on immune system.
Mehdizadeh M, Nahavandi A, Ebadi B, Shariati T, Seghatoleslam M,
Volume 9, Issue 1 (4-2007)
Abstract

Background & Objective: In this research, we study the simultaneous effects of Nitric Oxide (NO) and stress on prefrontal cortex of rats. Nitric Oxide is an unstable small molecule that involved in many physiological and pathological conditions. Brain’s prefrontal cortex has important role on personality and mental state. Its development continues after birth and this period is the most sensitive time for brain’s cortex to response to environmental parameters such as psychological stresses. Materials & Methods: In this study Wistar male rats received L-arginine (200 mg/kg) as NO precursor, L-NAME (20mg/kg) and 7-nitroindazole (25mg/kg) as non specific and specific NO sentries inhibitors. L-arginine and L-NAME were injected intra peritoneal (IP) and 7-nitroindazole injected subcutaneously (S.C) during one month per day. Rats divided in two groups (with stress and without stress). The kind of stress was immobilization every day for one month during injection of materials. Brains were removed after this period and each brain with a coronal section manner divided in two parts .Anterior part of brain fixed by formalin and tissue processing was done. By using rotatory microtome 10? serial cross sections were obtained and stained with H & E. Posterior part of brain homogenized with such solution then amount of NO in obtained solution was measured by spectrophotometer with 540 nm wavelength. Results: Statistical analysis of light microscopic findings indicated that stress of immobilization with use of L-NAME and 7-nitroindazole result in decrease of thickness of prefrontal cortex , numbers of Betz cells and NO production in rats’ brain, it means L-NAME and 7-nitroindazole exaggerate the brain damage and from other hands L-arginine with stress can convert these results. Conclusion: On the basis of these results we believe that stress of immobilization damages prefrontal cortex and also NOS inhibitors can aggravate the cortical damage. On the other hand although NO precursor (L-arginine) decreases the cortical damage in rats that impress with stress, it can result in these changes in rat’s brain without stress.
Shahryar Semnani (md), Gholamreza Roshandel (md), Abbasali Keshtkar(phd), Laily Najafi (md), Taghi Amiriani (md), Mehran Farajollahi (md), Abdolvahab Moradi (phd), Hamidreza Joshaghani (phd), Amirhossein Noohi (md), Nafiseh Abdolahi (md),
Volume 11, Issue 1 (3-2009)
Abstract

Background and Objective: Stress has been known as an important causative factor in irritable bowel syndrome. Various studies have indicated the relationship between serum leptin levels and stress levels. This study was undertaken to investigate the relationship between serum leptin levels with irritable bowel syndrome. Materials and Methods: In This case-control study, eighty irritable bowel syndrome patients and 80 controls were recruited. All participants were asked to fill in a questionnaire included demographic information and medical history as well as a stress questionnaire. Serum leptin level was measured by ELISA method. Chi-square, student t-test, pearson correlation and logistic regression were used for investigating the relationships between variables. Results: Participants in irritable bowel syndrome group had significantly higher stress levels than controls (p<0.05). In the other hand, Serum leptin levels were significantly lower in irritable bowel syndrome group than the other one (p<0.05). Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that after adjustment of stress level and body mass index, serum leptin level was still significantly lower in irritable bowel syndrome group (Odds ratio=0.9 CI95%:0.85-0.94). Conclusion: The present study indicated that there is a relationship between leptin and irritable bowel syndrome and serum leptin level is significantly lower in irritable bowel syndrome group than controls. This relationship is independent of other variables such as stress levels, BMI.
Mansouri M (md), Seyedolshohadaei F (md), Company F (md), Setare Sh (md), Mazhari S (bsc),
Volume 12, Issue 3 (9-2010)
Abstract

Background and Objective: Respiratory distress syndrome is the most important lung problem during the neonatal period. Although the benefits of antenatal corticosteroids in neonates with a gestational age of less than 34 weeks have been demonstrated, the benefit of this treatment in neonates with higher gestational age is dubious. This study investigated the effect of Betamethasone on respiratory distress syndrome among neonates with gestational age of 35-36 weeks. Materials and Methods: This double blind randomized controlled trial study was done on 200 pregnant women who were of high risk for preterm labor in 35-36 weeks of gestation in Sanandaj city-Iran during 2007. 200 pregnant women randomly divided into treatment and placebo groups were received intramuscularly Betamethasone (12 mg/kg/BW twice) and normal saline, respectively. Data including age of mother, sex, weight, respiratory distress syndrome and newborns admission in hospital were recorded for each subject. Data was analyzed by using two-tailed T, Mann-Whitney, chi-square and Fisher exact tests. Results: There were no difference among two groups about age of mother, sex and weight of newborns. There were 8 (8%) and 20 (20%) newborns with respiratory distress syndrome in case and controls, respectively (P<0.01). Admission in hospital was 16% in Betamethasone group vs 28% in normal saline group (P<0.04). Conclusion: The study demonstrated that exposure to antenatal Betamethasone with 12mg/kg/BW twice between 35 and 36 weeks of gestation is associated with a significant reduction in the rate of respiratory distress syndrome.
Hosseinzadeh S (msc), Dabidi Roshan V (phd),
Volume 13, Issue 2 (6-2011)
Abstract

Background and Objective: Lead threaten living creature’s life as air pollutant and causes several diseases such as degenerative disease of nervous system. This research was conducted to determine the effect of Curcumin on BDNF changes and oxidative/antioxidative process in rat’s hippocampus which exposed to Lead acetate.

Materials and Methods: In this experimental study, 40 male Wistar rats were randomly assigned to four groups of ten: Base, Sham(control), lead and Curcumin+Lead. lead and Curcumin+Lead groups received 20 mg/kg lead acetate and Curcumin+Lead group also received 30 mg/kg Curcumin, peritoneally for 8 weeks (3 days in weeks). MDA (oxidative stress biomarker) and TAC (total antioxidative capacity) levels were measured by TBARS and FRAP methods, respectively, and hippocampus BDNF level was measured by ELISA method in rat hippocampus region. Data was analyzed by one-way ANOVA test and Tukey at P<0.05 level.

Results: Injection of lead acetate significantly increased MDA, non-significantly decreased hippocampus BDNF and significantly decreased TAC levels in the Lead group compared with control groups. On the other hand, curcumin administration led to non significantly decreased MDA, nonsignificantly increased BDNF and significantly increased TAC levels compared with other groups (P<0.05).

Conclusion: This study showed that Curcumin adminstration in long term lead acetate-treated male Wistar Rats did not increased BDNF of hippocampus, but it prevent the reduction of BNDF due to lead-intoxification.


Jamshir M, Hosseini Sm (phd), Hajimashhadi Z (msc), Azimi H,
Volume 13, Issue 3 (9-2011)
Abstract

Background and Objective: The reactive oxygen species (ROS) continuously are neutralized by antioxidant. Biological molecules become protected from oxidative stress under normal conditions. The production of ROS during hypoxia is reported In Vitro which is also known as reductive stress. In order to study this phenomenon at physiologic scales which occurs in routine activities, this study was conducted to evalute, the effect of voluntary apnea on serum ROS level. Materials and Methods: In this semi-experimental study, the participants were 12 healthy non-athlete men aged 21±3 years. At the end of normal depth inspiration the voluntary apnea had been started till 40 seconds. The respiratory rate and depth, heart rate and arterial oxyhemoglobine saturation percent were continuously monitored. Venous blood samples were collected at two times: (1) immediately after the apnea and (2) at the end of it and before re-breathing. The serum ROS level was measured using the standard D-ROM test. Results: The mean and the range of breath holding time were 52.5±7.9 and 40±61.7 seconds respectively. The heart rate and the arterial oxyhemoglobine saturation percent decrease 12.75% (P<0.003) and 2.05% (P<0.001) respectively. The mean and the range of basal vs. apnea of these parameters were as follow: 93.3±3.03 and 87-107 bpm vs. 81.43±3.7 and 71-93 bmp 97.6±.16 and 97-98 percent vs. 95.6±.33 and 94-97%. The serum ROS level after 40 seconds of apnea did not show significant differences. Conclusion: In non-athletes the voluntary apnea had no effect on serum reactive oxygen species level.
Janzadeh A (msc), Nasirinezhad F (phd), Jameie Sb (phd),
Volume 14, Issue 1 (3-2012)
Abstract

Background and Objective: Oxidative stress is known as the one of the causes of neuropathic pain, reactive oxygen species (ROS) has been reported to be involved in this process. Coenzyme Q10 acts as an antioxidant and is able to reduce resulting oxidative damage. This study was done to determine the effect of Coenzyme Q10 on neuropathic pain in CCI (Chronic Crash Injury) rat model.

Materials and Methods: In this experimental study 30 male rats (200-250g) randomizely allocated into 3 groups each 10 rat including CCI, CCI + CoQ10 and CCI + vehicle. Neuropathic pain, was induced by Chronic Crash Injury (CCI) model for sciatic nerve. IP injection of CoQ10 (200 mg/kg) or vehicle was done daily for 10 days. Behavioral tests were done before and after surgery on day 5 and 10 respectively. Paw withdrawal threshold was assessed by Randall Selitto test, Analgesy Metter and Von Frey filaments. Data was analyzed by SPSS-14, Independent T and Mean-whatney tests.

Results: Induction of nerve injury decreased pain threshold (P<0.05) and treatment with CoQ10 increased mechanical and thermal threshold in neuropathic rats compared to CCI animals (P<0.05). There was a significant difference in pain threshold between animals treated CoQ10 and vehicle injected animals (P<0.05).

Conclusion: This study indicated that coenzyme Q10 prevents deleterious effects following nerve injury in animal model.


Roghani M (phd), Baluchnejadmojarad T (phd), Roghani Dehkordi F (md),
Volume 14, Issue 2 (6-2012)
Abstract

Background and Objective: Chronic diabetes mellitus is accompanied with enhanced oxidative stress and reduce the activity of antioxidant defense system. Due to significant role of enhanced oxidative stress in development of renal damage in diabetices, this study was conducted to evaluate the effect of chronic administration of Silymarin on oxidative stress markers in renal tissue of diabetic rats. Materials and Methods: In this experimental study, 40 male Wistar rats were divided into 5 groups: control, silymarin-treated control (100 mg/kg bw), diabetic, and silymarin -treated diabetic groups (50 and 100 mg/kg bw). Silymarin was administered (daily and intraperitonealy) ten days after Streptozotocin injection for 4 weeks. Tissue level of malondialdehyde and nitrite and nitrate and activity of superoxide dismutase in kidney tissue were measured. Data were analyzed using ANOVA and Tukey tests. Results: A significant increase in tissue level of malondialdehyde, nitrite and nitrate in diabetic rats were observed (P<0.05). Silymarin treatment (100 mg/kg/bw) significantly reduced the tissue level of Malondialdehyde, nitrate and nitrate (P<0.05). Non-significant recduction of activity of superoxide dismutase was oberved in diabetic rats and Silymarin treatment (50 and 100 mg/kg bw) did not significantly altered enzyme activity. Conclusion: Four weeks treatment of Silymarin (100 mg/kg bw) reduce oxidative stress indexes in renal tissue of diabetic rats.
Mehrabadi S, Makvand Hosseini Sh, Miladi Gorji H , Nikfarjam Haft Asia M ,
Volume 14, Issue 3 (9-2012)
Abstract

Background and Objective: Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) impairs spatial learning and memory. Desmopressin acetate ameliorates the cognitive deficits induced by electroconvulsive shock. This study was designed to evaluate the protective effects of Desmopressin acetate on retention of spatial memory deficits induced by post-traumatic stress disorder in rats. Materials and Methods: In this experimental study twenty one male Wistar rats were used. Animals were trained for 5 consecutive days in Morris water maze and then were randomly assigned in three groups (Vehicle + Sham, Saline + PTSD and Desmopressin acetate + PTSD) and tested in a probe 60 sec in 24h after the last acquisition trial. The groups of PTSD+Desmopressin acetate rats and vehicle+sham, saline+PTSD were injected Desmopressin acetate (10 micro gr/kg body weight) and saline (IP), respectively. Injections performed ten minute prior to PTSD and spatial memory was tested ten minutes later. Data were analyzed using SPSS-16, One-Way ANOVA and Tukey tests. Results: The platform location latency of the Desmopressin acetate+PTSD group was significantly shorter (4.24 sec) than the control group (P<0.05) and also, had significantly smaller average proximity values (33.87 cm) compared to the saline+PTSD group (P<0.05). Desmopressin acetate + PTSD spent significantly more time (21.65%) in the target zone (P<0.05). Conclusion: This study indicated that Desmopressin acetate blocks the ability of PTSD to impair spatial memory retention.
Ahmadi R, Akbari Rad Sh, Moradi Binabaj M ,
Volume 15, Issue 2 (6-2013)
Abstract

Background and Objective: Immobilization stress has a variety of effects on the enzymes activity. This study was conducted to determine the protective effect of Aloe vera extract on the serum level of creatine kinase enzyme in male rates exposed to acute and chronic immobilization stress. Materials and Methods: This experimental study was conducted on 45 male Wistar rats weighing approximately 200±30g. Animals were randomly allocated into 9 groups of 5 rats: control, normal saline, chronically immobilized, acutely immobilized, chronically immobilized normal saline, acutely immobilized normal saline, Aloe vera extract (600mg/kg/daily), acutely immobilized Aloe vera (600g/kg/daily) and chronically immobilized Aloe vera groups (600g/kg/daily). Aloe vera extract with a dose of 600mg/kg/BW was administered by gavage feeding before applying stress. For chronic immobilization, animals were put under immobilization stress for 2 hrs a day for 3 weeks and for acute immobilization animals were put under immobilization for 8hrs a day for one week. At the end of the experiments, blood samples were collected using cardiac puncture method and serum level of creatine kinase enzyme (units/L) was measured by spectrophotometery. Data were analyzed using SPSS-19, one-way ANOVA and Tukey post-hoc tests. Results: Serum level of creatine kinase enzyme represented a statistical significant increase in rats exposed to acute (2368.20±104.96 units/L) and chronic immobilization (2177.80±234.75 units/L) compared with control group (1240.40±706.40 units/L) (P<0.001). The enzyme alteration level was not significant in Aloe vera (1619.80±171.41 units/L), acutely immobilized Aloe vera extract (1619.00±206.03 units/L) and chronically immobilized Aloe vera extract (1448.00±106.07 units/L). Conclusion: This study showed that gavage of Aloe vera extract (600mg/kg/daily) in rats can prevent the elevation of creatine kinase enzyme activity resulted by immobilization stress.
Farajdokht F, Soleimani M, Mehrpouya S, Barati M, Nahavandi A,
Volume 15, Issue 2 (6-2013)
Abstract

Background and Objective: The first effect of stress on the immune system is usually a rapid increase in function which manifests itself by an increase in the number of inflammatory cytokines in blood. It is however, followed by a decrease of function in immunological response. During inflammation, the expression of hepcidin gene is increased in order to keep iron away from pathogens. This study was conducted to determine the effect of chronic mild stress on the expression of hepcidin gene in the hippocampus of the male adult rats. Materials and Methods: This experimental study was carried out on 30 adult male Wistar rats, weighing approximately 200-250 grams. They were randomly allocated into two groups of 15 rats: control and chronic mild stress group. Animals in intervention group were exposed to chronic mild stress for 3 weeks. At the end of the stress protocol, 2 ml blood sample was collected to measure the serum concentration of IL-6. Real time PCR method was used to investigate hepcidin expression in hippocampus. Data were analyzed using SPSS-16 and independent t-test. Results: The mean level of IL-6 was significantly higher in the CMS exposure group (27.98±0.84 pg/ml) than control group (18.29±1.18 pg/ml) (P<0.05). Hepcidin expression in the hippocampus of intervention group was significantly higher (2.69±0.226%) in compared to control group (1±0.105) (P<0.001). Conclusion: This study showed that chronic mild stress increases the expression of hepcidingene and the serum level of IL-6 in adult rats.
Habibian M, Dabidi Roshan V, Moosavi Sj, Mahmoody Sa,
Volume 15, Issue 3 (9-2013)
Abstract

Background and Objective: Oxidative damage associated with the presence of Lead in the brain has been proposed as one possible molecular mechanism involved in Lead toxicity. Aerobic exercise is known to protect the brain through a cascade of molecular and cellular processes. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of 8 week aerobic training on the brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and malondialdehyde (MDA) levels in rat's cerebellum exposed to Lead acetate. Materials and Methods: In this experimental study, 40 Male Wistar rats were randomly allocated into four groups: sedentary base, sham (30 mg/kg of ethyloleate), Lead and exercise+Lead (20 mg/kg Lead acetate, intraperitoneally). The exercise program consisted of progressive running training on the treadmill for 15 to 22 m/min, 25 to 64 min/day, and 5 days/week for 8 weeks. BDNF and MDA levels were measured by ELISA and TBARS methods, respectively. Results: Chronic Lead acetate administration enhanced significantly (P<0.05) cerebellar MDA levels in rats compare to base and sham groups but had no effect on BDNF levels. Cerebellar MDA significantly was reduced and BDNF non significantly was increased in Lead acetate+ training group. Conclusion: Regular aerobic exercise with moderate intense may exert role neuroprotective against Lead-induced cerebellar injury by down-regulating oxidative stress and promotes brain health through increases in BDNF.
Naghinasab Ardehaee F, Karami A, Javan M, Seifi M,
Volume 16, Issue 4 (1-2015)
Abstract

Background and Objective: Body psychotherapy technique (BPT) is a program teaches to deal more effectively with stressors. This study was done to evaluate the effectiveness of body psychotherapy technique on the stress and salivary cortisol level in high school girl students. Methods: In this randomized clinical trials study, thirty 15-18 years old female students were randomly divided into intervention and control groups. BPT group was given to the intervention group in nine sessions during two months. Cohen stress scale was used perior and the end of study to determine the scale of stress. Perior and at the end of study, salivary samples of subjects were collected directly after getting up in the early morning , 15, 30 and 45 minutes later on to measure salivary cortisol level. Results: The mean of stress scale scores and salivary cortisol level in the intervention group significantly reduced in comparison with the controls (P<0.05). Conclusion: Body psychotherapy technique reduces stress scale scores and salivary cortisol level in high school girl students in Gorgan, northern Iran.
Baghaiee B, Nakhostin-Roohi B , Siahkuhian M, Bolboli L,
Volume 17, Issue 2 (6-2015)
Abstract

Free radicals are unstable molecules in reaction with other molecules lead to a variety of injuries and illnesses. However, to prevent the injuries, enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidants react with free radical in various forms. Free radicals and antioxidant enzyme acts by various mechanisms, although age, gender and physical activity affects on these reactions. Different responses and adaptation are experienced to oxidative stress among women and men, young, elderly, subjects with physical fitness and untrained subjects. The present article reviewed the effect of oxidative stress due to exercise-induced adaptations.
Safari H, Makvand-Hosseini Sh , Miladi-Gorji H ,
Volume 17, Issue 2 (6-2015)
Abstract

Background and Objective: Exposure to a stressor generates a wide variety of adaptive responses and alters the pharmacological effects of opioids. Common neural pathways are activated by morphine and stress. This study was done to determine the effect of chronic restraint stress and acute water immersion stress on the severity of naloxone precipitated morphine withdrawal manifestation in morphine-dependent rats. Methods: In this experimental study, 32 adult male Wistar rats were allocated into four groups equally including: morphine-dependent - no chronic restraint stress (D/NS) (Control), morphine-dependent with chronic restraint stress (D/R), morphine-dependent with acute water immersion stress (D/WI) and morphine-dependent with chronic restraint stress under acute water immersion stress (D/R+WI). Rats were injected with bi-daily doses (10 mg/kg/bw, sc, at 12h intervals) of morphine over a period of 10 days in the presence or absence of restraint stress (1 h/day). On day 11, immediately after naloxone hydrochloride injection (2mg/kg/bw, ip), withdrawal manifestation were recorded. Water immersion stress was performed prior to naloxone injection in D/WI and D/R+WI groups. Results: The overall score of morphine withdrawal was significantly lower in D/RS and D/RS+WI rats in compared to controls (P<0.05). Among the graded signs, the mean number of abdominal contractions and jumps was reduced in D/RS+WI and D/RS rats in compared to control groups (P<0.05). Among the checked signs, the number of rats per group with erection and genital grooming were reduced in restraint rats by 25% than control group (P<0.05). Conclusion: Chronic restraint stress with or no acute water immersion stress diminished severity of dependency on morphine. Thus, restraint stress may be applied as a method to ameliorate some of the withdrawal behavioural consequences of morphine.

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مجله علمی دانشگاه علوم پزشکی گرگان Journal of Gorgan University of Medical Sciences
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