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Showing 17 results for Rezaei

M.naderi (m.d), T.naserpour-Farivar (ph.d), M.taheri (m.sc), R.rezaei (m.d),
Volume 5, Issue 2 (Autumn & Winter 2003)

Background & Objective: Urinary tract infections (UTI) are regarded as one of the most common infectious diseases. A remarkable percent of urinary tract infections are asymptomatic. In some cases of urinary tract infections, significant bacteriuria is not present. One the etiologic agents of culture negative genitourinary tract infections, which can be transmitted through intercourse, is Chlamydia Trachomatis. On the basis of high incidence of negative results of urine culture (Up to 60%) in patients suffering from UTI referring to Bou-Ali infectious hospital and taking into consideration the importance of genitourinary Chlamydial infections, we decided to study prevalence of Chlamydia Trachomatis in urine sample of patients with UTI referring to this hospital. Materials & Methods: This research was a descriptive study on the 320 patients referring to Bou-Ali infectious hospital in Zahedan, which were chosen by non-randomized sampling. One early morning urine sample was taken from these patients. After centrifugation, sediment of samples was used as antigen for Chlamy-check-I ELISA kits. Results: Out of 320 urinary specimens, 95 specimens (29.69%) were positive and 225 specimen (70.31%) were negative for Chlamydia Trachomatis. From 95 positive samples, 43 person (45.2%) were male and 52 person (54.73) were female. In both sexes the highest percent was related to 20-29 years old group. Conclusion: In accordance with above reported prevalence rate and bearing in mind the consequences of inappropriate treatment of Chlamydial infections (PID, infertility, extra uterus pregnancy, epididiomitis) the importance of precise treatment of Chlamydial infection and necessity of providing laboratory facilities for accurate and rapid diagnosis of Chlamydial infections in the area with high incidence of culture negative urine specimens is recommended.
E.rezaei (m.d), M.ghaemei (m.d), M.motamdolshariatei (m.d), T.rashed (ph.d),
Volume 6, Issue 2 (Autumn & Winter 2004)

Background & Objective: Appendicectomy for suspected acute Appendicitis is a common procedure. The rate of normal Appendices unnecessarily removed remains high (15-30%) despite several techniques and investigations used to improve the diagnostic accuracy. Many studies investigated the role of raised C-reactive protein in improving the diagnosis of acute Appendicitis. This study emphasizes the impact of a normal serum C-reactive protein in reducing the rate of negative explorations. Materials & Methods: In a double blind study, blood for the WBC count and measurement of serum C-reactive protein (CRP) was collected pre-operatively from 100 patients just before going to the operating room for appendicectomy. The histopathology of the 100 Appendices was grouped into positive (Acute Appendicitis) and negative (Normal appendix). White blood count (WBC), CRP and the histopathology finding were correlated. Results: In-patients with histopathologically proven acute Appendicitis both the WBC count and serum CRP level were significantly raised (P=0.000 and P=0.000 respectively). Serum CRP level was normal in 16 out of 18 negative explorations (Normal appendix on histopathology). The specificity and sensitivity of serum CRP was 88.8% and 92.6% respectively. Conclusion: Normal pre-operative serum CRP measurement in-patients with suspected acute Appendicitis is most likely associated with a normal appendix. Deferring surgery in this group of patients would probably reduce the rate of unnecessary appendicectomies.
Mahmoodi M (phd), Aghamohammadi A (md), Ghaderi H (md), Isaeian A (phd), Zargar M (md), Khaji A (md), Rezaei N (phd), Divsalar K (msc), Mohagheghi Ma (md),
Volume 12, Issue 4 (12-2010)

Background and Objective: An increased risk of invasive infections with encapsulated bacteria such as Streptococcus pneumoniae has been described among splenectomized patients. Pneumococcal vaccination has been recommended in these patients. In this study, the serum antibody response to pneumococcal polysaccharide antigens in splenectomized patients with idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura (ITP) or trauma who immunized with Pneumovax 23 was evaluated. Materials and Methods: This case - control study was performed on two groups of patients including fifteen cases of trauma patients (11 male, 4 female) and twenty patients with ITP (10 male, 10 female) along with 40 healthy volunteers as controls who were immunized with Pneumovax 23 to prevent pneumococcal infections. All patients received the pneumococcal vaccine before splenectomy. The serum antibody response (IgG and IgG2) to pneumococcal antigens was determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) technique prior to vaccination and 4 weeks post-vaccination. Analyzing of data was performed using student t-test and linear regression test. Results: The mean of post-vaccination IgG or IgG2 titer to the pneumococcal antigens in ITP patient group was significantly lower than those in controls or in trauma group (P<0.05). No significant differences in IgG or IgG2 antibody titer increase were found between trauma group and healthy control group. Response to immunization was poor in 9 of 20 ITP patients. Conclusion: This study indicated that 45 percent of patients suffered from ITP who have undergone splenectomy responded poorly to pneumococcal antigens.
Sadat Sm (msc), Zabihollahi R (md), Vahabpour R (msc), Siadat Sd (phd), Javadi F (msc), Rezaei A (md), Parivar K (phd), Aghasadeghi Mr (phd),
Volume 12, Issue 4 (12-2010)

Background and Objective: Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) belongs to the retroviridae family and is the agent of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). Treatment of HIV for the global health has made a special importance for the new antiviral drug discoveries in addition to HIV vaccine developments. Materials and Methods: In this experimental study single cycle replicable (SCR) HIV-1 virions with the capability of one cycle of replication were produced by the co-transfection of three plasmids of pmzNL4-3, psPAX2 and pMD2.G to the HEK cells and their replication capacity of the first generation SCR visions in HEK 293T, MT-2, and mouse spleen cells was examined by p24-capture ELISA, syncytium formation assay. The infectivity of the SCR-produced virions was also analysed on MT-2 cells. Results: Experiments showed the efficient production of SCR virions. Moreover, results indicated the replication potency of SCR virions on the investigated cells and the inactivity of the produced SCR HIV virions. Complete HIV antigens are expressed in their native forms by SCR virions, but this second viral particles lack the replication capacity. Conclusion: SCR HIV virions produced in this study are capable of one cycle of replication and will be inactivated thereafter.These features make SCR virions as a good candidate for HIV vaccine studies. Moreover, considering the one cycle replication, SCR virions do not need the severe biosafety concerns involved in retrovirus studies.
Farshchian N (md), Razazian N (md), Rezaei M (phd), Livani S (md),
Volume 14, Issue 4 (12-2012)

Background and Objective: Although multiple sclerosis is a disease affecting white matter of brain and spinal cord, but involvement of basal ganglions in some studies demonstrated a decrease in T2 sequence signals. This study was done to assess signal intensity of basal ganglions in T2 magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in multiple sclerosis Materials and Methods: This case – control study was done on 30 multiple sclerosis patients and 30 controls in Imam Reza hospital, Kermanshah, Iran, during 2010. MRI images of multiple sclerosis of patients and control group were matched according to age and sex. The basal ganglia signals were identified based on involvement areas, number of plaques, and brain atrophy in T2 and flair sequences. Data were analyzed using SPSS-16, Chi-Square, Fisher exact test and independent t-tests. Results: Among the case group, 10 patients (33.3%) demonstrated low signals in right thalamus and 14 patients (46.7%) in left thalamus, which was statistically significant compared with control group (P<0.001). The presence of plaques in right and left globus pallidus was observed in 4 (13.3%) and 7 patients (23.3%) respectively. The presence of plaques in right and left thalamus was observed in 10 patients (33.3%) and 14 patients (46.7%) respectively, which was significant compared with control group (P<0.001). The presence of brain atrophy was observed in 18 patients (60%) in case groups and in one patient (3.3%) in control group (P<0.001). Conclusion: This study indicated that reduction of T2 signals in thalamus is a valuable finding in multiple sclerosis patients and it may facilitate the diagnosis of multiple sclerosis.
Abdollahi M, Rezaei R, Rezaei E, Sadeghi R, Abdollahi A, Etezadpour M, Kalantari Mr , Afzal Aghaee M ,
Volume 15, Issue 4 (12-2013)

Background and Objective: Dissection of the axillary lymph nodes is considered as one of the common measures in management of breast cancer. Edema and limitation in hand movement are accompanied with dissection of axillary lymph nodes. Sentinel lymph node biopsy can be used to evaluate axillary metastasis. This study was carried out to evaluate the diagnostic value of sentinel lymph node biopsy in patients with breast cancer. Materials and Methods: This descriptive study was performed on 30 selected patients with breast cancer less than 5 cm without any involvement of axillary lymph nodes in Ghaem Hospital in Mashhad, North-East of Iran during 2009 -10. Initially, the lymphoscintigraphy was performed. Subsequently, prior, to the surgery, the blue dye as a marker was injected for detecting sentinel lymph node and with the use of probe gamma counter and observing blue color on lymph nodes, the sentinel node was determined and separated. Finally, axillary dissection was performed for removing the lymph nodes of I and II level in all patients. Results: Among 30 patients who were evaluated for sentinel lymph nodes and axillary dissection, false negative were observed only in two cases (6.6 %). The sensitivity rate was determined to be 84.6%. Conclusion: Considering the high success rate of detection of sentinel lymph node and limited false negative cases, sentinel lymph node biopsy is recommended in cases of breast cancer without axillary involvement.
Tadayoni S, Malekzadeh Shafarodi M , Ghasemi Hamidabadi H , Esmailnejad Moghaddam A, Khalilian A, Rezaei N,
Volume 17, Issue 3 (10-2015)

Background and Objective: With respect to the antioxidant role of melatonin and retinoic acid, it seems to be effective both in the maturation and embryonic development. This study was done to investigate the effect of combination of melatonin and All-Trans retinoic acid (RA) on maturation, fertilization and embryonic development of immature mouse oocytes. Methods: In this experimental study, cumulus - oocyte complex (COCs) were recovered from 4-6 week old female mice NMRI and were divided into 6 maturation medium groups including control, sham, experiment 1(melatonin 100 nM, 1 and 2 µM), experiment 2 (retinoic acid 1, 2, 4, 6 µM), experiment 3 (melatonin 2 µM+RA 4 µM), experiment 4 (Mel 100nM + retinoic acid 4µM). The maturation rate was recorded after 24 hours of culture in a humidified atmosphere of 5% CO2 at 37°C. The matured oocytes were fertilized with sperm. Fertilization and embryonic development rates to the blastocyst stage were recorded. Results: Maturation rate in the control and sham groups were 50.6% and 49.4%, respectively. Maturation rate were 54.3%, 54.8%, 59.9% in melatonin group with concentrations of 100 nM, 1 and 2 µM, respectively. Maturation rate were 51.6%, 51%, 59% and 49.6% in t-RA group with concentrations of 1, 2, 4, 6 μM. Maturation rate were 60.4% and 54.2% in the experiment 3 and 4 groups, respectively. The maturation rates in the melatonin 2 µM, retinoic acid 4 µM and experiment 3 significantly increased in compare to control (P<0.05). The embryonic development rate in the melatonin with 100nM concentration and 4 µM of retinoic acid increased significantly compared to controls (P<0.05). Although, embryonic development rate in experiment 3 was higher than control, but lower in compare to melatonin 100 nM and the retinoic acid 4 µM. The embryonic development rate in experiment 4 significantly increased in compare to control (P<0.05). Conclusion: Combination of melatonin and All-Trans retinoic acid in medium culture increase maturation rate and improved embryonic development in dose dependent manner.
Baghban Boosari M, Mousavi Sv, Nemati Sh, Rezaei S,
Volume 18, Issue 2 (6-2016)

Background and Objective: Patients with psychological disorders including depression, anxiety and patients with choronic psychological diseases are not suitable for cosmetic rhinoplasty.This study was done to evaluate the mental health status before and after cosmetic rhinoplasty.

Methods: This quasi- experimental study was done on 100 women and men with mean age of 26.85±6.60 which candidated for cosmetic rhinoplasty. Subjects filled out psychological disorder symptom questianare (SCL-90-R) before and 3-6 months after cosmetic rhinoplasty.

Results: Women had more symptom (P<0.05) of depression (7.24 versus 10.79), somatization (4.64 versus 7.35), obsessive-compulsive (5.67 versus 8.51), interpersonal sensitivity (5.48 versus 7.52), anxiety (5.26 versus 8.07), symptom distress index (0.58 versus 0.79) and totally positive symptoms (32.29 versus 41.06) in comparison with men. The main effect of time factor showed that there was not significant difference between symptoms of psychological disorder before and 3-6 months after cosmetic rhinoplasty. Interactional effect of gender and time was not significant for each psychological disorder symptom.

Conclusion: The differences of deviation of psychological disorder symptoms, before cosmetic rhinoplasty and 3-6 months after cosmetic rhinoplasty were not significant. This finding can denotes existence of psychological symptoms before cosmetic surgery. Cosmetic surgery strengthens psychological symptoms in women the assessment and psychological intermediate with the aim of reducing psychological symptoms especially at time range of 3-6 months should be done.

A Moezy , Sh Gharamaninia , A Gharamaninia , M Rezaei Hemami ,
Volume 19, Issue 2 (7-2017)

Background and Objective: One of the most common musculoskeletal injuries in modern societies is neck and shoulder pains which often lead to postural disorders and soft tissue shortenings. This study was done to compare the length of shoulder girdle’s muscles in healthy subjects and patients with shoulder and neck pain.

Methods: This case-control study was done on16 patients with chronic neck- shoulder pain as cases and 15 healthy subjects as control group. Length of upper trapezius, pectoralis major and minor muscles was evaluated with functional tests. Also, the range of shoulder abduction and external rotation and cervical flexion and lateral flexion were measured by goniometer.

Results: Significant differences between patient and control groups were found in pectoralis major and minor muscles length in involved side (P<0.05) and also in neck active range of lateral flexion (P<0.05). Furthermore, there were significant differences between shoulder active range of abduction and external rotation (P<0.05) in the groups.

Conclusion: This study confirmed a significant reduction in range of motion in the neck and shoulder and also a remarkably shortening in the muscles of in the involved side.

Majid Malekzadeh Shafaroudi , Mitra Shokri , Zohre Zare, Alireza Rafiei , Mohammad Ali Ebrahimzadeh , Reza Moradpour , Nourollah Rezaei ,
Volume 20, Issue 1 (3-2018)

Background and Objective: The most important factor in the integrity of saphenous vein is the health degree of endothelium which guaranties the dilation of them after cronary bypass sergery. Kind of preservative soulution has a key role in endothelial protection. This study was done to evaluate Protective effect of perserved solutions of krebs contains verapamil, adrenaline and propranololol in comparision with Krebs and Heparinated blood on desqumation of the endothelial cell in Saphenous vein of Guinea pig.
Methods: This experimental study was done on 28 male Guinea pigs with 380±40g weight.for separating 3mm of saphenous vein rings and Measuring of rings nitric oxide released in preserving solutions: Krebs (K), Krebs plus propranolol (K+P), adrenaline (K+A) and verapamil (K+V) compaired with heparinized blood at 30, 45, 60 and 90 minutes after harvesting measured by micro plate Griess reaction. Rings also stained by H&E and examined by light microscopy to evaluate endothelial desqumation.
Results: Average concentration of nitric oxide (NO) in the Krebs plus Verapamil solution (K+V) Vs Heparinized Blood (HB), Krebs (K), Krebs plus Adrenaline (K+A) and Krebs plus Propanololol (K+P) revealed significant increase in NO release (P<0.05). The maximum NO measurement was 45 minuts after harvesting. Also histological study with H&E staining showed that endothelial layer was intact only in Krebs plus verapamil in compaired to control group, but in the other solutions the vascular intimal cells had suffered different degrees.
Conclusion: It seems that Krebs solutions containing verapamil has more efficiently to the proper functioning of the saphenous veins endothelium in animal modle.
Navid Rahimi, Nafiseh Abdolahi , Sima Sedighi , Mehrdad Aghae , Atefeh Rezaeifar ,
Volume 20, Issue 3 (10-2018)

Background and Objective: Systemic lupus erythatous (SLE) is an autoimmune disease with clinical symptoms. Anti neutrophil cytoplasmic antibody (ANCA) is common in vasculitis which is reported in SLE. This study was done to determine the frequency of ANCA in patient with SLE and its association with disease activity.
Methods: This descriotive study was conducted on 80 patients with SLE whom referred to rheumatology clinic in Gorgan, northern Iran during 2012-15. The patients disorder diagnosed based on the ACR Criteria. According to the disease activity the patients divided to active group and inactive group. Demographic data was completed with questionnaire and blood sample collected in order to evaluate of for serum ANCA by using ELISA method.
Results: The average age was 37.5±12.4 year. Seven (8.5%) patients were males. 91.5% of patients was females. 27 patients (33%) had active lupus and 53 (57%) had inactive lupus. Only one patient has been reported as positive for ANCA. The patient was a 45 years woman with history of 10 years of lupus nephritis with active disease.
Conclusion: There was no relationship between ANCA and disease activity. The main reason for this finding can be a few numbers of positive cases in this study.
Fatemeh Namvar , Marjan Shaheli , Abbasali Rezaeian ,
Volume 21, Issue 4 (12-2019)

Background and Objective: The ever-increasing resistance to beta-lactame antibiotic in opportunistic Pseudomonas aeruginosa bacteria considered as one of the important factors of death of hospital-acquired infections. This study was performed for determine the antibiotic resistance and prevalence of IMP-1 and VIM-1 metallo-beta-lactamase and integron class I genes in clinical isolates of Pseudomonas aeruginosa.
Methods: In this descriptive-analytical study, 200 Pseudomonas spp. isolates from blood, urine, ulcer, eye and sputum infections were collected from Arsanjan hospital in Fars province in south –west of Iran during April-September 2016. After confirmation genus of bacterial by biochemical and 16S rRNA tests, and isolation of Pseudomonas aeruginosa by specific primer of lasI Gene, antibiotic susceptibility was done according to diffusion disk assay and CLSI procedure, the presence of blaVIM, blaIMP and Int-1 genes were determined by PCR.
Results: The results of phenotypic and genotypic tests led to the isolation of 107 isolates of Pseudomonas aeruginosa that the highest resistance with (79.38%) for cefepime and the lowest resistance with (13.08%) for tobramycin. Out of 107 isolates, 10 (9.35%) isolates were carrying class1 Integron,19 (17/76%) isolates carrying IMP gene, 23 (21.5%) isolates carrying VIM gene, 4 (3.74%) isolates carrying IMP gene and integron class1, 11 (10.28%) isolates carrying VIM gene, and class1 intgron, 15 (14.02%) isolates carrying both IMP, VIM and 12 (11.22%) isolates simultaneously were carrying each three genes, VIM, IMP and class1 integron. 13 (12.15%) isolates did not have none of these three genes, VIM, IMP, class1 integron.
Conclusion: The results showed increased multidrug resistance and simultaneous presence of one or two IMP, VIM and Int-1 genes in Pseudomonas aeruginosa strains. Int-1 has the ability to transduce resistance genes and create resistant populations.

Farhad Pashazadeh, Asghar Tofighi , Siyamak Asri Rezaei , Javad Tolouei Azar ,
Volume 22, Issue 4 (12-2020)

Background and Objective: Bisphenol A (BPA) is the monometer of epoxy resins and polycarbonate plastics that plays an important role in the pathogenesis of cardiovascular diseases. This study was done to evaluate the effect of aerobic exercises on oxidative stress indices in heart tissue of male Wistar rats after poisoning with Bisphenol A.
Methods: In this experimental study, 20 adult male Wistar rats were allocated into four groups including control, aerobic exercise, BPA and BPA + aerobic exercise. Animals in control and aerobic exercise groups were receieved olive oil and the BPA (100 μg/kg) intraperitoneally, respectively. Animals in BPA + aerobic training group were treated with BPA (100 μg/kg) intraperitoneally for 30 days. Exercise program consisted of 25-64 minutes of running with 57-75% oxygen consumption, 5 sessions per week for two months. Indicators of oxidative stress in heart tissue including Gpx, SOD, TAC, MDA, CAT and AOPP were evaluated.
Results: BPA intoxication induced a significant increase in the activity of SOD , GPX enzymes, AOPP and MDA levels and  reduction  in CAT enzyme activity and TAC level in compared to control group (P<0.05). While aerobic exercise could diminish the oxidative stress due to BPA intoxication. Aerobic exercise reduced the activity of the GPX, SOD and increased catalase activity in rats with BPA intoxication (P<0.05). Also, level of MDA and AOPP significantly reduced in in aerobic exercise group in comparison with with BPA intoxication (P<0.05).
Conclusion: Aerobic exercise activity has moderating effects on BPA intoxication in cardiac oxidative stress. Aerobic exercise can increase the amount of antioxidant enzymes that play an important role in modulating oxidative stress induced by BPA.
Lobat Shahkar , Laden Rezaei , Ali Ahani Azari,
Volume 23, Issue 2 (7-2021)

Background and Objective: Foreign body aspiration is the cause of death in 7% of children under two year’s olds. Children’ molars teeth do not erupt and under devedoled ability to swallow food and generally likely to be distracted, playing or ambulatory while eating. This study was performed to determine the frequency of foreign body aspiration in children under ten years old in north of Iran.
Methods: This descriptive study was done on 50 children (21 boys, 29 girls) less than ten years old with the final detection of foreign body aspiration hospitalized in Taleghani hospital in Gorgan, north of Iran during 2016-17. Demographic characteristics, results of physical examination, radiography and bronchoscopy recorded in the file and the radiology report was collected by a pulmonologist and radiologist.
Results: The common age of foreign body aspiration was between 1-3 years (58%) followed by over 3 years (24%) and under 1 years old (18%). Symptoms of patients with foreign body aspiration were including cough (64%), rhonchi (52%), respiratory distress (32%), wheezing (32%), choking (30%). Common physical examination findings were wheezing (40%), unilateral pulmonary sound (34%), stridor (20%), and rhonchi (6%). The most common findings in Chest X-Rays were unilateral air trapping (48%) in right lung, left mediastan shift (30%), right lung atelectasia (20%), pneumonia (16%). Just in one case (2%) was found the body of radio opac in right lung and in 32% of cases, the graghs were normal. In 70% of patients less 24 hours, in 26% between 1-15 Dayes and in 4% of cases more than 15 Dayes were taken to medical centers. The most common foreign body was nuts (32%) followed by plastic objects (26%), aspiration by sunflower seeds (14%) and beens (10%) and other foreign objects (18%).
Conclusion: The most common clinical signs of foreign body aspiration were cough, wheezing and right lung pneumonia.

Zahra Eslami , Zeinab Mohammadi , Shohreh Sharifian , Masoumeh Rezaei Ghomi , Seyedeh Vafa Mousavi , Mahboubeh Farhadi , Najmeh Sheikh Robati , Zeinab Faghfoori , Seyed Javad Mirghani ,
Volume 23, Issue 3 (10-2021)

Background and Objective: Stroke and cerebral ischemia are the second leading causes of death in the world. Currently, there are limited therapeutic interventions for patients with ischemia / reperfusion. This study was performed to determine the protective effect of aerobic exercise and adenosine on changes in inflammation mediators after transient ischemia of common carotid arteries in male Wistar rats.
Methods: In this experimental study, fifty male Wistar rats were randomly allocated into to 5 groups: control, cerebral ischemic control, aerobic exercise + cerebral ischemia, adenosine + cerebral ischemia and aerobic exercise + adenosine + cerebral ischemia. Ischemia was performed by blocking the common carotid artery for 45 minutes after a period of exercise and injection of adenosine. Neuronal structure was examined by Nissel tissue staining. The expression of NGF and Glutamate genes were measured in CA1 region of hippocampal tissue samples.
Results: Cell death was increased in neurons in the CA1 region of the hippocampus in the ischemia / reperfusion group, While a significant reduction in cell death in the adenosine + ischemia / reperfusion and aerobic exercise + ischemia /reperfusion groups was due to adenosine administration and aerobic exercise (P<0.05). NGF and glutamate gene expression in the adenosine + ischemia/reperfusion and adenosine + aerobic exersice + ischemia/reperfusion groups significantly increased and reduced compared to the ischemia/reperfusion control, respectively (P<0.05).
Conclusion: Co-administration of adenosine combined with aerobic exercise increase the protective effect of aerobic exercise on improving the neuronal damage after ischemic / reperfusion.
Afshin Naghizadeh , Mehran Zarghami , Ensiyeh Babaie , Hoda Rezaei Roshan , Habibolah Khazaie , Mojtaba Yassini Ardekani , Nour Mohammad Bakhshani , Ali Sahraian , Majid Torabi Yingjeh , Seyed Ataullah Aghilian ,
Volume 24, Issue 2 (7-2022)

Background and Objective: Most people who commit suicide suffer from psychiatric disorders, especially depression and substance-related disorders. However, major psychiatric disorders are not the sole risk factor for suicide, and other reasons, such as physical illness, may also be considered as an important factor for suicide ideation. This study was conducted to investigate the prevalence of suicidal ideation and its relationship with depression and the general health status of patients referred to addiction treatment centers in Iran.
Methods: This descriptive-analytical study was conducted on 689 patients referred to addiction treatment centers in Yazd, Khorasan Razavi, Mazandaran, Sistan and Baluchistan, Fars, East Azarbaijan, and Kermanshah Provinces who were undergoing maintenance treatment with methadone in 2017. In this multicenter study, the subjects were selected by two-stage sampling; in the first stage, seven provinces (clusters) were randomly selected, and in the second stage, the patients from the selected provinces were enrolled via convenience sampling. The instruments used in this study included the General Health Questionnaire, the Beck Depression Inventory, and the Beck Suicide Idea Scale.
Results: Of 689 patients, 218 (31.6%) had suicidal ideation. 21.91% (151 cases) of subjects had history of attempted to suicide. There was a significant relationship between suicidal ideation, depression, and general health status and its dimensions including physical symptoms, anxiety and sleep disorders, social functioning, and depression (P<0.05).
Conclusion: Suicidal ideation is present in one-third of the people who refer to addiction treatment centers in Iran. Depression and poor general health are major contributors to suicidal ideation.
Yahya Arab Balajelini , Rahmatollah Rezaei , Seyed Mehran Hosseini,
Volume 25, Issue 1 (3-2023)

Hermaphrodite patients are individuals who, due to various issues such as chromosomal, gonadal or hormonal disorders that occurred during pregnancy, experience physiological abnormalities in their genital area after birth. As a result, they may have both male and female genitalia or be born ambiguously as a baby boy with female sexual organs, or vice versa. In order to study the challenges presented by this condition in the Islamic Penal Code, sources were collected from Irandak, Normagz, and SID Civilica Jihad academic databases using keywords such as hermaphrodite, neutrality, criminal policy, gender identity disorder, gender ambiguity, recidivism, multicrime, neutral jurisprudential rule, and factors that reduce responsibility due to thematic and conceptual relevance. The time frame considered for the study was from 1980 to 2022, and 57 sources were included. The criteria for inclusion in the study were criminal, jurisprudential, and medical articles related to hermaphroditic and criminal topics relevant to the questions posed in the article. The purpose of this study is to provide a correct explanation of the challenges in the Islamic Penal Code and to answer them. Given the nature of these disorders and the lack of knowledge among affected individuals, families, and society, as well as the exclusion of the conditions of these patients in different laws, this article attempts to explain the place of hermaphrodites in medical science, how this disorder occurs in these individuals, and the introduction of hermaphrodite patients in Islamic jurisprudence. It also discusses where these individuals are placed as human beings in Imamiah jurisprudence. The most important part of this article is devoted to the articles of the Islamic Penal Code regarding the commission of crimes such as hudud, retribution, blood money, and punishment. The most significant challenge in implementing penal law for these patients is the lack of differential criminalization. Specifically, there is a need to develop criminal laws for crimes that these individuals are more likely to commit and determine appropriate punishments, such as obtaining a guarantee of non-custodial executions. In addition, during the investigation phase, there is a lack of an appropriate differential procedure for this category of patients. This requires training for judges and officers, such as police and officers dealing with these patients, as well as adaptation of detention spaces (detention centers and prisons) to prevent victimization or re-offending due to the special mental and physical conditions of these patients. In conclusion, research on hermaphrodite patients is necessary to change attitudes towards them and take practical measures at the social level in legislative, judicial and executive criminal policy. This article uses a descriptive method and library sources to explain and analyze this purpose.

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مجله دانشگاه علوم پزشکی گرگان Journal of Gorgan University of Medical Sciences
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