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Showing 168 results for Reza

3
Sara Maghsoudlou , Saeed Amirkhanlou , Gholamreza Roshandel , Pezhman Kharazm ,
Volume 0, Issue 0 (2-2024)
Abstract


H.nasri (m.d), A.baradaran (m.d), A.rezauf (ph.d),
Volume 4, Issue 2 (Autumn & Winter 2002)
Abstract

Increase blood level of thyroid hormones due to hyperthyroidism can change the balance between resorption and bone formation and result in hypercalcemia, increase Alkaline Phosphatase and increase in urinary Calcium excretion. Due to these finding and the nutritional conditions of our country in Calcium containing food, we decided to evaluate some of bone indexes in hyperthyroid patients. 30 women, 6 men between 17-40 years (23 patients) and more then 40 years (13 patients) were the sample populations. The control subjects were 35 healthy people 17-40 years (25 persons) and more than 40 years (10 persons). The serum Calcium, phosphorus and Alkaline Phosphatase were determined in these hyperthyroid patients. There were a meaningful correlation between the Alkaline Phosphatase of hyperthyroid patients compared to normal subject (P<0.05) in the patients more than 40 years old, and (P<0.01) in the 17-40 years patients. There were no differences between serum Calcium of hyperthyroid patients and normal subjects. The results from this investigation indicate that in hyperthyroid patients the average Alkaline Phosphatase level is higher than normal subjects. On the other hand the reason for not having a meaningful differences in Calcium level between the hyperthyroid patients and normal population may be due to low dietary intake of dairy produce and proteins in daily diet, which results in low amount of Calcium in nutrition.
M.naderi (m.d), T.naserpour-Farivar (ph.d), M.taheri (m.sc), R.rezaei (m.d),
Volume 5, Issue 2 (Autumn & Winter 2003)
Abstract

Background & Objective: Urinary tract infections (UTI) are regarded as one of the most common infectious diseases. A remarkable percent of urinary tract infections are asymptomatic. In some cases of urinary tract infections, significant bacteriuria is not present. One the etiologic agents of culture negative genitourinary tract infections, which can be transmitted through intercourse, is Chlamydia Trachomatis. On the basis of high incidence of negative results of urine culture (Up to 60%) in patients suffering from UTI referring to Bou-Ali infectious hospital and taking into consideration the importance of genitourinary Chlamydial infections, we decided to study prevalence of Chlamydia Trachomatis in urine sample of patients with UTI referring to this hospital. Materials & Methods: This research was a descriptive study on the 320 patients referring to Bou-Ali infectious hospital in Zahedan, which were chosen by non-randomized sampling. One early morning urine sample was taken from these patients. After centrifugation, sediment of samples was used as antigen for Chlamy-check-I ELISA kits. Results: Out of 320 urinary specimens, 95 specimens (29.69%) were positive and 225 specimen (70.31%) were negative for Chlamydia Trachomatis. From 95 positive samples, 43 person (45.2%) were male and 52 person (54.73) were female. In both sexes the highest percent was related to 20-29 years old group. Conclusion: In accordance with above reported prevalence rate and bearing in mind the consequences of inappropriate treatment of Chlamydial infections (PID, infertility, extra uterus pregnancy, epididiomitis) the importance of precise treatment of Chlamydial infection and necessity of providing laboratory facilities for accurate and rapid diagnosis of Chlamydial infections in the area with high incidence of culture negative urine specimens is recommended.
N.asnafei (m.d), R.pourreza (m.d), Sm.miri (m.d),
Volume 6, Issue 2 (Autumn & Winter 2004)
Abstract

Background & Objective: Respiratory distress syndrome (RDS) is one of the important causes of newborn mortality. The aim of this study is to determine the pregnancy outcome and Corticosteroid effects for prevention prophylaxis in pregnant women with premature labor between 34-37 weeks gestational age. Materials & Methods: This semi experimental single blind clinical trial study was performed on hundred 34-37 weeks pregnant women who were referred with labor pain or rupture of membrane. These women divided in 2 almost similar case and control groups. The control group received 5 mg Dexamethasone 6 hours to delivery time (Maximum 4 doses). Data was entered to SPSS and analyzed by Chi-square and T-test. Results: There wasn’t any significant difference between administration of Dexamethasone and incidence of RDS in 34-37 weeks newborn (P=0.6). The frequency of RDS was similar in 2 groups (In all women: 4%) the mean weight of newborns with RDS diagnosis was 2675±263. 76% of women had vaginal delivery. The mean weight of newborn was 2672 gr and mean gestational age was 35.4 weeks. Conclusion: The frequency of RDS in newborn with 34-37 weeks gestational age was 4% and administration of one or more Dexamethasone had no effect on reduction it.
E.rezaei (m.d), M.ghaemei (m.d), M.motamdolshariatei (m.d), T.rashed (ph.d),
Volume 6, Issue 2 (Autumn & Winter 2004)
Abstract

Background & Objective: Appendicectomy for suspected acute Appendicitis is a common procedure. The rate of normal Appendices unnecessarily removed remains high (15-30%) despite several techniques and investigations used to improve the diagnostic accuracy. Many studies investigated the role of raised C-reactive protein in improving the diagnosis of acute Appendicitis. This study emphasizes the impact of a normal serum C-reactive protein in reducing the rate of negative explorations. Materials & Methods: In a double blind study, blood for the WBC count and measurement of serum C-reactive protein (CRP) was collected pre-operatively from 100 patients just before going to the operating room for appendicectomy. The histopathology of the 100 Appendices was grouped into positive (Acute Appendicitis) and negative (Normal appendix). White blood count (WBC), CRP and the histopathology finding were correlated. Results: In-patients with histopathologically proven acute Appendicitis both the WBC count and serum CRP level were significantly raised (P=0.000 and P=0.000 respectively). Serum CRP level was normal in 16 out of 18 negative explorations (Normal appendix on histopathology). The specificity and sensitivity of serum CRP was 88.8% and 92.6% respectively. Conclusion: Normal pre-operative serum CRP measurement in-patients with suspected acute Appendicitis is most likely associated with a normal appendix. Deferring surgery in this group of patients would probably reduce the rate of unnecessary appendicectomies.
Mj.golalipour (phd), M.jahanshahi (msc), K.haydari (msc), N.rezaee (phd),
Volume 7, Issue 1 (Spring & Summer 2005)
Abstract

Background&Objective: It is natural that there is close relationship between cranial capacity, and the size of brain, several studies have estimated the cranial capacity which indirectly reflects the brain volume in different countries. In the present study cranial capacity has been estimated in Turkman’s 17-20 years old group in North of Iran. Materials&Methods: This study was carried out on 401 normal 17-20 years old (male 198, female 203) in South-East of Caspian Sea border (North of IRAN). By using linear dimensions of the head (Using Lee- Pearsom's Formula). Results: The mean and SD of cranial capacity in males and females were 1420.6±85 ml and, 1227.2±120 ml, respectively, this difference was significant (P<0.05). Conclusion: This investigation was shown that the cranial capacity is higher in male than female also racial and Geographical factors can affect on cranial capacity.
F.hosaynisazi (msc), A.poorreza (phd), M.hosayni (phd), D.shojaee (phd),
Volume 7, Issue 1 (Spring & Summer 2005)
Abstract

Background&Objective: Depression during pregnancy has been indicated as more frequent than depression after child delivery. But this important phenomenon has partly been ignored. This study aims to recognize the prevalence and possible influential factors on depression among pregnant women attended to Mirza Koochek Khan Hospital in Teheran. The study designed as a cross-sectional one and included sample of pregnant women during 2 months of study. Materials&Methods: Beck depression test was employed as data gathering instrument. Moreover, socio-economic and demographic characteristics of the respondents as well as their attitudes towards some reproductive health variables were questioned. The questionnaire piloted and thereafter, 180 pregnant women completed the questionnaire with their own consensus. Results: At least 23/3% of the sample suffered from depression in different degrees, though none of them received or requested treatment. The average score of Beck test among the sample was 11/43 with 5/75 standard deviation. Logistic regression analysis demonstrated that indicators related to physical and sexual violence from husbands’ side as well as their educational attainments were more influential variables on depression inducing (respectively). Conclusion: With regard to high prevalence of depression among the respondents, and as it has been indicated in relevant studies conducted in home, the integration of depression screening through appropriate instrument such as Beck test, in mother and child health services delivery seems to be necessary. Also taking into consideration the determinant role of husbands in rise and fall of pregnancy period depression, providing educational programs for husbands in terms of their active participation in alleviating pregnancy related problems and physiological - psychological changes occur during pregnancy suggested.
Joshaghani Hr, Semnani Sh, Mirrezaee A, Abdolahi N, Besharat S, Behnampour N, Dehbashi Gh, Roshandel Gh,
Volume 8, Issue 3 (10-2006)
Abstract

Background&Objective: Celiac is a digestive disease. In this disease, small bowel is damaged and the absorption of nutrients are adversely affected. These patients do not absorb gluten. There is probably a correlation between esophagus cancer and celiac. The aim of this research was to study the seroepidemiology celiac disease in this area with high prevalency of esophagus cancer. Materials&Methods: This research was a descriptive study, which was performed on blood donors in Golestan province during the year 2005-06. blood samples were taken from 2547 subjects. tTG-IgA determination were carried out using ElISA technique, the titre<4U/ml, 4-10U/ml and >10Um/l were considered to be as negative, weakly positive and positive respectively. EMA antibody assessment were carried out on all sample population with more than 4U/ml, using IFA method. Results: 28 subjects (1.1%) had tTG-Ab positive test, out of this number 18 subjects (0.7%) were weakly positive and 10 persons (0.4%) were considered to be positive. EMA test were positive in 70% of subjects with tTG positive results. There was not any significant meaning between positive tTG test and ethnicity from weakly positive tTG, 15 subjects (83.3%) and 3 subjects (16.7%) were male and female respectively. The entire tTG positive were male subjects. Conclusion: In regard to high prevalency of esophagus cancer in the region and the relation of celiac disease with above cancer, it seems necessary to look more seriously at the celiac disease.
Alireza Moharreri, Hosein Nasiri, Mehrdad Jahanshahi, Hosein Rahmani, Aliakbar Abdollahi, Mohammadreza Rabiei,
Volume 9, Issue 3 (10-2007)
Abstract

Background & Objective: We have two areas in gluteal region for intramuscular injection‚ Ventrogluteal and Dorsogluteal. This study was done to compare pain intensity and bleeding rate after injection in Ventrogluteal and Dorsogluteal area.

 

Materials & Methods: This clinical trial study was done on 67 males in 5th Azar hospital in Gorgan north of Iran. Patients had 2 injections during 24 hours. For every patient one injection was done in Dorsogluteal area and the second injection was done in Ventrogluteal area. For every patients the pain intensity and rate of bleeding for every injections recorded. Data analyzed by SPSS-11.5 software and Kolmogorov-Smirnov and Wilcoxon tests.

 

Results: In Dorsogluteal area 83.5% of patients had a low and medium pain‚ where as in Ventrogluteal area 88% of patients had a low and medium pain and 9% of them had not any pain. The Mean±SD of pain intensity in Dorsogluteal area was 50.79±1.682 and in Ventrogluteal was 40.79±1.878. The Mean±SD of bleeding in Dorsogluteal and Ventrogluteal areas were 0.73±0.102 and 0.19±0.047 respectively. There were significant differences in pain intensity and bleeding between two groups (P<0.05).

 

Conclusion: We concluded that the injection in Ventrogluteal area has a less pain and bleeding rate in comparison with Dorsogluteal area.


Mohammadreza Rabiee, Shayda Kazemi Malek Mahmodi, Shima Kazemi Malek Mahmodi,
Volume 9, Issue 3 (10-2007)
Abstract

Background & Objective: At least about 30 percentage of children hospitalize in hospital in their childhood. Hospitalization of children cause anxiety, due to separation from their parents ,fear of new environment, disabilities and continuation of life. This study was done to determine the effect of music on the rate of anxiety among 9-12 years old hospitalized children.

 

Materials & Methods: This semi experimental study was done on sixty 9-12 years old children who are confined to bed in Taleghani hospital in Gorgan north of Iran during 2002-3. 60 of children were divided to 2equal groups of intervention and control randomly. The tools of gathering data including information questionnaire, patients demographic, state – trait anxiety inventory for children Spillberger (STAIC), face anxiety children examined scale Piyeri (FACES) information was compared before and after the intervention the collect. For intervention group, 2 music therapies listening of music section, for the 2 continuous days and each section lasted for 20 minutes. The collected data before and after intervention were analyzed by using Kolmogrov-Smironov, c2, independent-sample T test, Wilcoxon signed Ranks, Bartlet and Mann Whitney test.

 

Results: There was not any difference between the average of state anxiety and amount of face anxiety in both group before execution of music therapy but there was a significant difference for the intervention group after the music therapy (p<0.05). Also the decrease in the rate of anxiety in intervention group can related to the executing of music therapy.

 

Conclusion: Music therapy reduced the rate of anxiety among the 9-12 years hospitalized children.


Mahmood Karimi Mobarake, Alireza Saied,
Volume 9, Issue 3 (10-2007)
Abstract

Tibiotalar dislocation without concomitant fracture in the surrounding bones is a rare injury. We report one of them presenting unreduced after a 10 month interval. A 23 y/o female presented to our clinic 10 months after Bam earthquake, during which she had sustained an anterior tibiotalar dislocation without any associated fracture. Open reduction was tried two times, but both attempts were unsuccessful because of the very poor quality of bone. Although ankle dislocation has been reported to be associated with good prognosis, it was not the case with our late presenting patient.


Hossein Ayatollahi, Abbas Ali Omidi, Mehrdad Katebi, Saeede Sabbagh, Hooman Tavassolian, Mohammad Reza Khalighi, Abbas Pardakhti, Mahdi Shariat,
Volume 9, Issue 4 (12-2007)
Abstract

Background & Objective: Tetra Carbon Cholride has been known as reference hepatotoxin because it can cause necrosis, fatty change, cirrhosis and cancer liver. Silymarin has hepatoprotective and anti hepatoxin effect. This study was done to determine the protective effect of Silymarin in acute hepatotoxicity of CCl4 in rats.

Materials & Methods: In this experimental study, we chose 25ml/kg dose of CCl4 (in mineral oil solvent) as an optimum dose. The hepatotoxic effects of intraperiotoneal injection of CCl4 for obtaining parameters of toxicity and therapeutic effects have been examined. According to enzymatic results (increase in ALT and AST) and histopathologic changes (grading the changes in liver including cytoplasmic granularity, cloudy swelling, necrosis and fatty change), the interval between prescribing silymarin and sampling  was determined. Silymarin as a suspension in propylene glycol CMC 2% (3/2 ratio) has been prescribed in 50, 200 and 800mg/kg doses and serum and liver samples were obtained. Negative control group received silymarin vehicle in CCl4 solvent, drug control received 800 mg/kg of silymarin in CCl4 solvent and positive control received silymarin vehicle after injecting CCl4.

Results: The results showed that prescribing 50mg/kg silymarin one hour after injecting CCl4, in addition to inhibiting transaminase activity, prevents progress of liver injury up to 50% of positive control group. Cellular repair and regeneration are also enhanced, So the grade 3necrosis in positive control group is decreased to grade 0.5 in silymarin gourp in 48 hours prescribing silymarin (50mg/kg).

Conclusion: This study showed that up to six hours after injecting CCl4 significantly prevents hepatotoxicity, and cause acceleration in repair of liver injuries.


Hamid Reza Joshaghani, Ezzat Ollah Ghaemi, Farhad Niknejad, Heydar Tavilani,
Volume 9, Issue 4 (12-2007)
Abstract

Background & Objective: Adenosine deaminase is an enzyme which catalyses adenosine to Inosine. The determination of adenosine deaminase in body fluids is important for the diagnosis of tuberculosis. There are contradictory reports about the diagnostic value of serum adenosine deaminase in pulmonary tuberculosis. This study was set up to investigate the diagnostic value of serum adenosine deaminase and its isoenzymes activities on pulmonary tuberculosis. Materials & Methods: In this descriptive study, blood samples were obtained from 26pulmonary tuberculosis patients (group 1), 17 suspected tuberculosis with negative in both smear and culture tests (group 2), and 67 healthy subjects (group 3). Total ADA and ADA2 determination was carried out by kinetic method and EHNA Inhibitor, respectively. Results: ADA and ADA2 activities are as follow: 19.35±5.04, 13.35±5.34 (group 1) 17.24±6.20, 11.47±3.92 (group 2) and 13.96±4.25, 7.36±2.91(group 3). The mean differences of ADA and ADA2 activity between group 1 and 2 with group 3 was meaningful. The sensitivity and specificity for ADA and ADA2 tests were (26.9%, 94 %) and (50%, 97 %) respectively. The PPV for ADA and ADA2 were 63.6% and 86.7% and the NPV were 76.8% and 83.3%, respectively. Conclusion: This study indicated that the assessment of these enzymes in serum to some extend can be a useful method for differentiation of healthy subjects from respiratory disease, but these tests do not have enough sensitivity to assist in the diagnoses of tuberculosis patients from other respiratory diseases.
Mohammad Reza Jalali Nadoushan, Mahdiyeh Moradi, Hasan Mohammad Hosaini Akbari, Nader Fallah,
Volume 9, Issue 4 (12-2007)
Abstract

Background & Objective: The pathogenesis of appendicitis remains poorly understood. However there is increasing evidence of involvement of the enteric nervous system in immune regulation and in inflammatory responses.This study was setup to characterize the status of the enteric nervous system and mast cells in acute appendicitis with normal and non inflamed appendix with clinical symptoms Materials & Methods: In this descriptive study, staining in surgically resected appendixes from 15 patients with histologically proven acute appendicitis (Histologically appendicitis, HA), 15 histologically normal appendix (Histologically normal, HN) from patients with a clinical diagnosis of appendicitis and normal histology,and15 normal appendixes from patients undergoing elective abdominal surgery were studied in Shaid Mostafa Khomeyni medical center, Iran during 2000-01. S100-Positive schwann cells and synaptophisin-positive nerve fibers were evaluated with immunohistochemical staining and mast cells were evaluated with histochemical staining with Toloiden –blue.The number of nerve fibres, schwann cells and mast cells in each tissue compartment was measured quantitively with light microscope in 20 microscopic high power fields. Then the mean number of cells was calculated in each field (×400). Results: Increased numbers of fibers and schwann cells widely distributed in the Muscularis and submucosa were seen in the all HA appendixes. Increased numbers of mast cells distributed in submucosa were seen in the all HA appendixes. A significantly increased number of individually stained nerve fibers, schwann cells and mast cells were present in HA appendixes compared with control appendixes (P<0.05). Conclusion: In this study showed that significant increase in neural components and mast cells in acute appendicitis indicates the interaction between the nervous system and mast cells in pathogenesis of acute appendicitis.
Ali Reza Monsef, Seyyed Hamid Hashemi, Mohammad Abbasi, Heshmatollah Taherkhani, Zohreh Shalchi, Akram Eliasi,
Volume 9, Issue 4 (12-2007)
Abstract

Background & Objective: Enteroparasitic infections constitute a serious public health problem in different populations including developed countries. Patients who receive chemotherapy of cancer have an increased probability of acquiring parsitic infections, generally with a high degree of severity. The aim of present study was to ascertain the frequency of intestinal parasites in patients admitted in oncology ward for chemotherapy. Materials & Methods: In a descriptive study, all the patients whith malignancy who admitted in Sina Hospital in Hamadan, Iran, during 2005 were included. Data including demographic characteristics, type of malignancy, and the time past from the diagnosis entered the questionnaires. A stool specimen were examined for each patients. Data were analyzed using SPSS software. Results: Out of 190 patients, 94 (49.5%) were male and 96 (50.5%) were female. The mean age was 48.518.7 years (12-88 years). Thirty-one (16.3%) patients were involved intestinal parasites. The most common parasites were: Ascaris (41.9%), Giardia (35.5%), Indolimax nana (3.2%), Blastocytis hominis (3.2%), and Cryptosporidium (3.2%). The highest prevalence of intestinal parasites belonged to 40-60 years age group Conclusion: This study indicated that, the prevalence of intestinal parasites in patients undergoing chemotherapy for malignancy is lower than general population, which can be related to the effect of antineoplastic agents.
Rogheieh Golsha, Gholamreza Roshandel, Rahim Rezaie Shirazi, Danyal Roshandel, Nafiseh Abdolahi, Ali Jabbari, Sima Besharat, Shahryar Semnani,
Volume 9, Issue 4 (12-2007)
Abstract

Background & Objective: The Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS) is in its third decade and has become a pandemic disease that threatens the world population. Educational programs are well known as the most effective strategy to preventing the AIDS. The purpose of this study was to determine the knowledge and attitude of participants about AIDS and to test the effects of an AIDS education program on it. Materials & Methods: This case-control study was conducted during 2005. 149 Red Crescent personnel in Golestan, Iran. The sample subjects participated in a pre/post intervention study. The activity consisted of a workshop 90 minutes in length, in conjunction with educational material. A 13-item questionnaire was used as the gauging tool. Results: 47% of subjects had adequate knowledge about AIDS. Mean level of knowledge in post-test exam was significantly higher than pre-test one (P<0.0001). Individuals with higher educational level (high school and university) had lower knowledge in pre-test (P=0.001), but the difference in pos-test was not significant. A significant relationship was shown between the history of participation in previous AIDS education programs and subject's knowledge in pre-test (P<0.001). Conclusion: This study indicated that education program based on special traing considerably increase general awareness and attitde towards AIDS.
Gholamreza Roshandel, Shahryar Semnani, Nafiseh Abdolahi, Sima Besharat, Abbas Ali Kashtkar, Hamid Reza Joshaghani, Abdolvahab Moradi, Khodaberdi Kalavi, Saba Besharat, Ali Jabbari, Mohammad Javad Kabir, Seyed Ahmad Hosseini, Seyed Mahdi Sedaghat, Danyal Roshandel, Ahmad Danesh,
Volume 9, Issue 4 (12-2007)
Abstract

Background & Objective: Hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection is one of the most important health problems all over the world. This study was conducted to determine the co-infection of hepatitis C virus (HCV), hepatitis D virus (HDV) in HBV infected patients in Golestan province of Iran. Materials & Methods: This population based cross sectional study was done in 2004. 139 HBsAg positive cases were assessed for co-infection with HCV and HDV. Serologic tests were done by ELISA method using available kits. Data were analyzed by SPSS-12 and STATA8 software. P-values of less than 0.05 were considered as significant. Results: Sixty eight (48.9%) of 139 cases were males and 71 (51.1%) were females. The mean (±SD) of participant's age was 41.89 (±11.3) years (range: 25-64 years). Anti-HCV and Anti-HDV antibodies were positive in 17 (12.3%) and 8 (5.8%) cases, respectively. Females were more infected with HCV and HDV than males. But the differences were not significant. Conclusion: The prevalence of co-infection with HCV and HDV in HBV infected cases is relatively high and notable in Golestan province of Iran. Because of negative effects of these co-infections in clinical outcome of the disease, it is recommended to assess possible HCV and HDV infection in individuals with HBV infection. This may result in more efficient management of the disease.
Gholamreza Hassanzadeh, Nahleh Zareefard,
Volume 9, Issue 4 (12-2007)
Abstract

The brachial plexus is the plexus of nerves that supply the upper limb. Anomalies in the formation of lateral cord of brachial plexus and communication between its branches are commonly observed but the variation of the course of lateral cord is very rare. We observed that lateral cord of brachial plexus and its branch had a different configuration in dissecting room in Bandar Abbas medical school. Here, the lateral cord pierced the coracobrachialis muscle and then divided into the musculocutaneus and the lateral root of median nerve. After a distance , the lateral root of median nerve joined the medial root of median nerve, and median nerve formed anterior to brachial artery. The rest of the course of the median nerve and the musculocutaneous was normal in arm region.
Mokhtar Jafarpur, Hasan Mofidpur, Ali Reza Ebrahimzadeh,
Volume 10, Issue 1 (3-2008)
Abstract

Background & Objective: Destructive effects of ethanol consumption have been confirmed on several organs of the body. Nevertheless, classic research which has been done on kidney in this field had less attention. The aim of this study was to evaluate of ethanol effects on light microscopic structure of Mice kidneys. Materials & Methods: In this experimental study, Balb/c strain mice, equally 40 males and females, weighing 30-35 grams were divided in two equal experimental and control groups randomly. The Mice in control and expermented groups further divided in two sub groups. One sub group received 1mg/gr body weight daily of ethanol for one month, intraperitoneally and other sub group received 1mg/gr body weight of ethanol for two months, intraperitoneally. Control groups divided in two sub groups and Mice received daily salin with same volume as experimental groups. Then, the Mice have been anesthetized and sacrificed and then, subsequently kidneys were removed. Routine histological methods and Hematoxylin and Eosin staining were done. Slides were observed by light microscope. Results: In experimental group, Mice which received ethanol for one month, interstitial bleeding and inflammatory cells infiltration in cortical zone of kidney was observed. In Mice which received ethanol for two months, we observed massive and concentrated lymphoblastic infiltration, especially on deep medulla around the blood vessels with extending to calyxes and pelvis of the kidney. No histological changes were observed in control groups. Conclusion: This study showed that the intraperitoneal injection of ethanol cause progressive destruction effects on cortex and medulla of the kidney. These effects depend on duration of ethanol consumption.
Alireza Sarkaki, Khalil Saadipour, Mohammad Kazem Gharib Naseri, Mohammad Badavi,
Volume 10, Issue 1 (3-2008)
Abstract

Background & Objective: Addiction to opiates such as morphine is one of major public health problems. It has been shown that in addicted animals, administration of antioxidant agents such as vitamin C can reduce the withdrawal symptoms (WDS). The aim of this study was to evaluate the preventional effect of grapefruit juice (Citrus Paradisi Macf.) on withdrawal symptoms in rats. Materials & Methods: In this experimental study, Sixteen male Wistar rats (250-300g) randomly divided into two groups (n=8). All animals were addicted by intraperitoneal (i.p) injection of morphine (the 1-3 days: 10 mg/kg, the 4-6 days: 20 mg/kg and the 7-9 days 40 mg/kg daily) for 9 days. The first group received 2 ml Citrus Paradisi Macf. orally 1 hour before morphine administration. The sham group received 2 ml of normal saline. Naloxone (10mg/kg, s.c) was administrated 45 minutes after of an additional dose of morphine (40 mg/kg) in the tenth day for withdrawal symptoms inducing. Then withdrawal symptoms such as frequency of wet-dog shaking, teeth chattering, defecation and penis licking were evaluated for 30 minutes. Results: All withdrawal symptoms including frequency of wet-dog shaking, teeth chattering, defecation and penis licking were reduced in the Citrus Paradisi Macf. group in comparison with the sham group significantly (p<0.05). Conclusion: Our results showed that presumably antioxidant activity of Citrus Paradisi Macf. can reduce withdrawal symptoms. Although the exact mechanisms of its effect in brain need to be elucidate.

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مجله دانشگاه علوم پزشکی گرگان Journal of Gorgan University of Medical Sciences
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