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Showing 23 results for MT

Smt.ayatollahi (ph.d), H.ghaem (m.sc),
Volume 6, Issue 1 (Spring & Summer 2004)
Abstract

Background & Objective: Atopic diseases are one of the most common chronic conditions in children. A population based matched study was conducted to estimate the prevalence of atopic diseases and this study used to identify its correlations in primary school children aged 6-12 years in Shiraz (Southern Iran). Materials & Methods: This case-control study was carried out in 2228 primary school children. The children were selected using 2-stage random sampling from the 4 educational distrincts of for each child. The consultant physician examined the children with positive result. After diagnosis of eczema, utricaria and allergic rhinitis control groups were selected by using matching method (Age, sex, school). The correlations of atopic diseases were determined by conditional logestic regression. Results: The most important results were as follow: Prevalence of diagnosed allergic rhinitis, utricaria and eczema in primary school children estimated in order 5.2% (Boys: 5.2% & girls: 5.12%), 3.6% (Boys: 3.57% & girls: 3.7%) and 1.6% (Boys: 1.53% & girls: 1.7%). There was no significant association between atopic diseases and birth order, social class, parent’s education, parent’s smoking and period of breast-feeding. An increased risk of childhood atopic diseases were associated with familiar history of allergic rhinitis (P<0.05), familiar history of utricaria (P<0.05) and familiar history of eczema (P<0.05). Conclusion: Our study confirmed that familiar atopic diseases were significant predictors of childhood allergic rhinitis, utricaria and eczema among school children in Shiraz.
Charkazy Ar, Kochaki Ghm, Badeleh Mt, Gazi Sh, Ekrami Z, Bakhsha F,
Volume 9, Issue 1 (3-2007)
Abstract

Background & Objective: Hypertension is the most important Cardio-Vascular risk factor, and also the most common cause of heart failure, stroke and renal failure. This semi-experimental study aimed at determining the effect of education, by means of Health Belief Model (HBM), on nurse’s staff knowledge, attitude and their practice toward hypertension. Materials & Methods: This semi-experimental study was done on 136 nurse’s staff selected by stratified random sampling. Data collection instrument were a questionnaire and a check-list. At first, the subjects’ knowledge, attitude and their Practice were studied by a questionnaire and a check list, and then a HBM-based educational program was carried out. For three months, Afterwards, their knowledge, attitude and practice were measured and compared with pretest findings. In statistical analysis, Wilcox on test, independent t test, ANOVA and Pearson correlation. Results: Before education the mean score of knowledge, benefit perceived, barrier perceived, threat perceived, attitude and practice was 9.68, 23.76, 25.63, 22.82, 71.99 and 4.55 respectively. After education these scores reached 16.66, 26.06, 28.94, 24.98, and 80.08 and 4.83. Based on the results, nurse’s staff training via HBM led to high knowledge, positive attitude and practice improvement (p<0.05).The difference between this research variables such as age, gender, marital status, record of service and family background was not significant, But there was significant difference between variables (occupational levels, educational levels, and hospital ward) and knowledge and practice. Furthermore, the relation between hospital ward and attitude was positive (p<0.05). Conclusion: In terms of the results, it is a necessity for nurse’s staff to participate in a HBM based educational program.
Bagheri F (md), Peyvandi Mt (md), Birjandinezhad A (md), Zolfaghari A (md),
Volume 12, Issue 4 (12-2010)
Abstract

Background and Objective: Open fractures mostly appear in leg (24%), and often accompany with soft tissue defects that predispose the limb for amputation. One of the best ways for limb salvage is to support both bone and soft tissue by the means of soft tissue reconstructing surgeries. The aim of this study was to evaluate the outcomes of soft tissue reconstruction surgeries in legs open fractures. Materials and Methods: This descriptive study was performed on 59 patients with leg open fractures and soft tissue reconstruction surgery at Shahid Kamyab hospital in Mashhad, North-East of Iran during 2004-05. Individual characteristic, clinical and physical examination, and outcome of the surgery were gathered in a questionnaire and analyzed by descriptive and Chi-Square test. Results: Eight patients excluded and finally the study was done of 51 patients. Out of 51 patients 84.3% were male with mean age of 30 years. Leg open fractures in 76.5% of patients was IIIB type. Surgery was successful in 76.5% of patients. Delayed ::::union:::: occurred in 56.9% and osteomyelitis in 33.13% of patients. There was a correlation between the time of soft tissue reconstruction and ::::union::::, deep infection and osteomyelitis (P<0.05). Conclusion: This study showed that high frequency of deep infection, osteomyelitis and delayed ::::union:::: due to leg open fractures with lack of soft tissue.
Ebrahimzadeh Mh (md), Sadri E (md), Makhmalbaf H (md), Peyvandi Mt (md), Ahmadzadeh H (md),
Volume 13, Issue 2 (7-2011)
Abstract

Background and Objective: Legg-Calve-Perthes disease is one of the most common disabling diseases of childhood and if not managed appropriately is truly disabling. Severity of disease and duration of disease onset are main determinants of choosing treatment strategy of either conservative management or surgical treatment. This study was designed to determine Legg-Calve-Perthes treatments and relation between type of treatment and duration of the disease.

Materials and Methods: This descriptive study was carreid out on 50 patients with Legg-Calve-Perthes disease admitted in Ghaem Hospital in Mashhad, North East of Iran from 1995-2005.

Results: According to age of patients and severity of disease, the subjects allocated to conservatine (11 patients) and surgical treatment (39 patients). Clinical improvment signs include pain reduction, range of joints motion, which were avaluate by physical examination and taking medical history of patients. In conservative group, only 4 patients assumed to be successfully treated with mean age of 7.25 years and the mean interval between disease onset and beginning of treatment was 2.25 months. Surgical group had mean age of 10.85 years and mean interval between onset of disease and initiation of treatment was 18 months. Conservative group showed less sever form of disease (lateral pillar group A and group B with age less than 8 years), but patients treated surgically were more severely involved (lateral pillar group B with age more than 8 years and group C).

Conclusion: This study showed that age and severity of disease (lateral pillar classification) are main elements in treatment strategy (choosing conservative VS surgical treatment). The interval between onset of disease and onset of treatment strongly affects treatment success.


Mayahi S (msc), Mosavi B (msc), Hedayati Mt (phd), Movahedi M (msc), Shokohi T (phd),
Volume 13, Issue 4 (12-2011)
Abstract

Background and Objective: Fungi are widely distributed in nature and they are usually present in attomospher but other sources such as water play an important role in their ecology. This study was done to evaluate mycoflora assessment in drinking tap water in Sari, North of Iran. The tap water collected form Sari water distribution system for fungi. Materials and Methods: In this descriptive study, a volume of 100 ml of tap drinking water samples (n=60) were collected in sterile bottles. All water samples passed through sterile 0.45 micrometer filters. The filters were placed directly on Malt extract agar and incubated at 27°C for 3-7 days. Routine mycological techniques were applied to identify the grown fungi. Results: Out of 468 grown fungal colonies, eight different fungal genera were identified. The total mean cfu per 100 ml for the positive samples were 8.4. Aspergillus (37.4%) and Penicillium (27.3%) were the most common isolated fungi. Rhizopus (0.6%) had the lowest frequency. Among Aspergillus species, A. flavus had the highest frequency. Conclusion: Our result showed that various fungi were present in the tap drinking water. We propose fungi should be considered as part of the microbiological analysis parameters in drinking tap water.
Falsafinia Gh (msc), Ghorbanian Mt (phd), Lashkarbolouki T (phd), Elahdadi Salmani M (phd),
Volume 14, Issue 2 (6-2012)
Abstract

Background and Objective: Neurotrophic factors are diffusible polypeptides that have critical roles in survival, proliferation and differentiation of stem cells. This study was done to assess the role of neurotrophic factors (CNTF‎, BDNF, ‎GDN‎F, ‎NT-‎3‎) expression and proliferation rate of neural stem cells (NSCs) in coculture with mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs). Materials and Methods: In this experimental study, NSCs and MSCs were isolated from adult Wistar rat. Initially, NSCs was harvested from temporal lobe after mechanical digestion by a sterile flamed Pasteur pipette and enzymatic digestion with trypsin and Dnase. The cell suspension was cultivated in a flask with DMEM/F12 medium supplemented with 10% FBS 100U/ml Penicillin and 100 mg/ml Streptomycin. To obtain MSCs, bone marrow of femur and tibia bones were flashed out and cultured. MSCs and NSCs‎ cocultured by transwell ‎system in DMEM/F12 medium supplemented with 10% FBS 100U/ml Penicillin and 100 mg/ml Streptomycin. Haemocytometer, immunocytochemistry and RT-PCR methods were performed to identify and evaluate cell proliferation, purity levels and neurotrophic factors expression. Results: There ‎is‎ no differences in NTFs profile of ‎neurotrophic‎ factors expression between ‎coculture ‎group‎ ‎and‎ control ‎NSCs, but interactions between MSCs and NSCs significantly promoted NSCs proliferation (P<0.05). Conclusion: This study showed that coculture of NSCs with MSCs might be prfered in cell-therapy than‎ NSCs.‎
Taheri F, Haji Ghasem Kashani M , Ghorbanian Mt , Hosseinpour L,
Volume 14, Issue 3 (10-2012)
Abstract

Background and Objective: Research have been focused on the applying the chemical inducer for trans-differentiation the adult BMSCs into neural cell. So that, at the first should investigate the toxcity effect of the chemical inducer on the induced cells. Plasticity and easy accessibility of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells is a unique charactristic for treatment of neural disorderies. This study was desgined to determine the inductive effect of Deprenyl and Dimethyl sulfoxide on proliferation and survival of the mesenchymal stem cells. Materials and Methods: In this experimental study, BMSCs isolated from the adult rat bone marrow and cultured in αMEM containing 10% FBS. Cell identity for surface antigens was performed in third passage by immunocytochemistry and multipotancy capacity of BMSCs was done by BMSC differentiation into adipocytes and osteocytes. The cells were exposed to chemical agents (a: the αMEM medium supplemented with 2% DMSO, b: the αMEM medium supplemented with 10-8M Deprenyl) for 24 houres and then transferred to αMEM containing 10% FBS cell survival and proliferation was evaluated after the 24, 48, 72 and 96 houres by MTT [3-(4-5-Dimethylthiazolyl-2-y1)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromid] test. Data were analyzed using SPSS-16, One-Way ANOVA and Tukey tests. Results: In addition to expression the surface antigens and adipogenic and osteogenic differentiation by BMSCs, MTT test results showed that proliferation and survival of induced-deprenyl and DMSO cells within 48, 72 and 96 hours after the induction was increased significantly than negative control group. Conclusion: Deprenyl increases survival and cell proliferation compared to Dimethyl Sulfoxide. It can be used as cell inducer.
Sheikhani N (bsc), Haji Ghasem Kashani M (phd), Ghorbanian Mt (phd),
Volume 14, Issue 4 (12-2012)
Abstract

Background and Objective: Epidermis is the outer layer of skin, regenerating continuously. Epidermal stem cells play important roles in tissue regeneration, scar regeneration and neoplasm formation.This study was displayed for the isolation and culture of interfollicular epidermal stem cells from newborn mouse skin without feeder layer. Materials and Methods: This experimental study was displayed on 0-3 old-day newborn NMRI mouse skin 60-70 gr weight. The epidermal keratinocytes were separated mechanically and enzymatically from 0-3 old day newborn mice skin (NMRI strain) and seeded on fibronectin-collagen culture substrates. Putative epidermal stem cells were selected by rapid adherence for 10 minutes on this composite matrix of type 1 collagen and fibronectin and the unattached cells were discarded and attached cells were cultured in essential minimal eagle medium (EMEM) (ca+2-free culture medium containing 0.05 mM Ca+2, 9% FBS, 50% conditioned medium, EGF (epidermal growth factor) and Cholera Toxin. The immunocytochemistry of β1-integrin analysis used to indicate their stemness nature. Results: The results indicated that rapid adherence yields 50% purity. By using this method, the stem cells have been subcultured continuously without any change in the cell properties. The isolated interfollicular epidermal stem cells, expressed epidermal stem cells special marker (β1-integrin) in high levels, which indicates stem cell nature. Conclusion: This new method yields pure viable epidermal stem cells that can be used in regenerative medicine and cell therapy.
Khajemozafari J, Peivandi Mt, Mostafavian Z, Meftah Sh,
Volume 15, Issue 2 (7-2013)
Abstract

Background and Objective: Femoral shaft traumatic fracture is one of the major causes of mortality and morbidity. Nowadays,the standard treatment method in adult is reduction with femoral interlocking intramedullary nailing. This study was performed to compare the open and closed methods femoral interlocking intramedullary nailingin femoral shaft fractures treatment. Materials and Methods: This clinical trial study was done on 40 18-50 year old patients (33 men and 7 women with mean age of 26.3 years) with femoral shaft closed fracture who were referred to the Shahid Kamyab hospital of Mashhad, Iran during 2007-08. Patients were divided into two 20 membered groups of open and close femoral interlocking intramedullary nailing treatment. Subjects were followed for one year and the :::::union::::: time, infection and non-:::::union::::: level were measured. Clinical and radiological findings were analyzed using SPSS-13, Student’s t-test and Fisher's exact test. Results: 97.5% of :::::union::::: was obtained within six months in both groups. Full weight bearing was determined 6-12 weeks (mean of 9.3 weeks) in close and 12-16 weeks (mean of 13.25 weeks) in open reduction. Complications included non-:::::union::::: in open (one patient, 5%), infection in open (one patient, 5%), shortening in both (one patientin, 5%), limited range of movement in both (one patient, 5%) and malrotation in close (one patient, 5%) groups. Close reduction group showed higher rate of radiologic callus formation and earlier full weight bearing than open reduction group (P<0.005), but :::::union::::: rate was not significant. Conclusion: This study showed that there is no difference between final :::::union::::: rate of open and close reduction by interlocking intramedullary nailing in femoral shaft fractures.
Mahdavi Mr, Roshan P, Yousefian N, Hojjati Mt, Hashemi-Soteh Mb ,
Volume 15, Issue 2 (7-2013)
Abstract

Background and Objective: Hemoglobinopathies are among the most prevalent genetic disorders worldwide, and occur as a result of mutations in the gene involved in synthesizing hemoglobin chains. By now more than 1000 defects in hemoglobin chains are discovered. Hemoglobin D (Hb D) is one of these disorders, identified by a single nucleotide mutation on codon 121 of beta globin chain. This study was carried out to evaluate Hb D mutations through molecular methods in Mazandaran province of Iran. Materials and Methods: This descriptive laboratory study was done on 70 patients with an electrophoresis band in hemoglobin-S zone in Mazandaran province of Iran during 2010-11. Capillary zone electrophoresis was done to find out Hb D in 51 patients. Subsequently, PCR-RFLP was performed to evaluate the samples at molecular level. Results: Molecular investigation revealed all cases are carriers of hemoglobin D-Punjab. Two patients were shown to be homozygote carriers of the abnormal gene. Conclusion: This study showed all Hb D affected patients were carriers of Hb D Punjab.
Hamta A, Parvini P,
Volume 15, Issue 3 (10-2013)
Abstract

Background and Objective: Breast cancer is one of the most frequent malignancies among women. This study was done to determine the BRCA1 gene expression in 7,12-Dimethylbenz(a)anthracene (DMBA) induced breast cancer in rats. Materials and Methods: In this experimental study, the breast cancer was induced by DMBA in Sprague dawley rats. After tumors arise, cell cultures were prepared and G-banding staining was performed on metaphase chromosomal smear. According to databases, genes in the affected area were collected and after comparing genome of the rats and human in changed chromosomal segments, a gene list was prepared. FISH technique was performed on BRCA1 gene to prove accuracy of chromosomal banding results. Results: Structural changes such as deletion occurred in chromosomes 10, which BRCA1 is located on. 24.7% of cells showed evidence of physical deletion in both copy of BRCA1 gene and 23.8% of cells showed deletion in one copy. Conclusion: Induced DMBA Breast cancer cells showed deletion in BRCA1 copy numbers. This gene may be involved in animal breast tumor model.
Soltanian A, Ghorbanian Mt, Lashkarbolouki T,
Volume 15, Issue 3 (10-2013)
Abstract

Background and Objective: Degeneration of neurons in the central nervous system occurs during aging. Transplantation of neural stem cells (NSCs) can be preventing the degeneration of neurons. In addition to neuronal replacement, with the production of neurotrophic factors, increased survival and proliferation of endogenous cells. This study was done to compare the cell proliferation, neurotrophic factors expression and features of NSCs harvested from different areas of the central nervous system in vitro. Materials and Methods: In this laboratory study NSCs have been harvested from subgranular zone (SGZ), subventricular zone (SVZ) and central canal of spinal cord from adult Wistar rats with mechanical, enzymatical digestion and subsequently was cultured in α-MEM medium supplemented with serum as monolayer or adherent conditions and passaged for 13 times. Immunocytochemistry was used to determine expression of the nestin and GFAP markers. Semi-quantitative RT–PCR was used to confirm genes expression (NGF, CNTF, NT3, NT4/5, GDNF and BDNF). Results: Morphological features of stem cells extracted from different regions of the central nervous system were similar in the culture. Doubling time NSCs in the SVZ (37.45 hr) is shorter than in the SGZ (44.04 hr) and central canal of spinal cord (57.22 hr). The culture conditions as well as monolayer neural stem cells are capable of producing neurospheres. Also, nestin and GFAP markers, expressed by NSCs. Neurotrophic gene expression pattern profiles were similar to each other in stem cells extracted from the SGZ, SVZ and central canal of spinal cord. Conclusion: Neurotrophic gene expression in stem cells extracted from different regions of the central nervous system were similar, but proliferation capacity was higher in NSCs, which have been harvested from the SVZ.
Nesar Hosseini V, Taghipour M, Sharifian R , Hamta A, Feyzi S,
Volume 15, Issue 4 (12-2013)
Abstract

Background and Objective: Coronary artery diseases are one of the main causes of mortality and morbidity. This study was done to determine the prevalence of risk factors for coronary artery diseases in patients referred to angiography center in Sari, Northern Iran. Materials and Methods: This descriptive study was performed on 2540 patients referred to angiography center in Sari city, northern Iran, during 2005-10. Risk factors including diabetes, hypertension, hyperlipidemia, smoking, Family history, CRP and also ECG changes, type and number of involved artery and the severity of vascular involvement were recorded for each patient. Results: Hypertension, hyperlipidemia, diabetes, smoking were seen in 40.8%, 40.5%, 29.1%, 12.5% of patients, respectively. Positive family history and CRP were found in 10% and 3.4% of the patients, respectively. 23.8% of patients had abnormal ECG. One, two and three vessel diseases were observed in 26.5%, 48.3%, 48.3% of cases, respectively. Left anterior descending artery constriction was seen in 75.8% and 80.4% of males and females, respectively. A significant relationship was found between diabetes and left coronary circumflex (P<0.04) and left anterior descending artery (P<0.03) constriction. Conclusion: Diabetes, hypertension, hyperlipidemia, smoking, family history, abnormal ECG are among the risk factors of coronary artery diseases in this area.
Emad Momtaz H, Rahimi M,
Volume 16, Issue 1 (3-2014)
Abstract

Background and Objective: Hematuria is one of the common causes of pediatric nephrology and urology diseases and is reported in 0.5-2% of children. This study was performed to determine the causes of hematuria in infants and children. Methods: This descriptive study was done on 200 infants, children and adolescents in one month to 18 year old ages with chief complaint of hematuria in Hamadan, Iran. Patients were evaluated by urinalysis, urine culture, measurement of calcium, creatinine and uric acid in random urine sample and abdominal sonography. Results: Microscopic and gross hematuria was detected in 79.5% and 20.5% of patients, respectively. Hematuria was idiopathic in 74 (37%) of patients. Urinary tract stones (18%), urinary tract infections (15.5%), hypercalciuria (13%), hyperuricosuria (10%), urinary tract anomalies (5.5%) and glomerulonephritis (1%) were diagnosed as causes of hematuria. Conclusion: In 56% of patients, hematuria was caused by three common etiologies of stone, urinary tract infections and crystalluria.
Kosaryan M, Mahdavi Mr, Hojjati Mt , Roshan P,
Volume 16, Issue 3 (10-2014)
Abstract

Background and Objective: Repeated blood transfusion is the major treatment for patients with major thalassemia. However due to antigen encounters, it may initiate body reactions, including alloantibodies against red blood cell antigens. This study was done to determine the Prevalence of alloimmunization in major beta thalassemia patients in northern Iran. Method: This descriptive - analytic study was carried out on 218 thalassemic patients (100 males and 118 females) with average age of 22.5±7 years in northern Iran during 2010. Each sample was tested for the presence of Alloantibodies including C, Cw, Lea, E, Lua, Leb, K, Jkb, N, P1, D, Jka, M, S, Xga, e, Fya, s, c, Fyb, k, Kpa, Jsb, Lub and Coa. Results: Eighty eight cases (40.4% 95% CI: 33.9-46.9) were positive for the presence of alloantibodies. Alloantibodies against C, Cw, Lea red blood cell surface antigens were the most prevalent (40%). No significant correlation was found between emergence of alloantibody with the age of initial, frequency and duration of blood transfusion. Conclusion: Alloimmunization is a common observation in thalassemic patients and should be prevented by transfusing compatible blood.
Soltan Dallal Mm , Vafaei Z, Haghi Ashtiani Mt , Nikmanesh B , Rahimi Foroushani A,
Volume 17, Issue 1 (3-2015)
Abstract

Background and Objective: Yersinia enterocolitica is a worldwide pathogen belong to genus Yersinia. The association between acute childhood diarrhea and other diseases caused by Yersinia enterocolitica has been established by several researchers. Due to the lack of sufficient information on other pathogenic Yersinia species, this study was done to determine the prevalence and the pattern of antibiotic susceptibility of atypical Yersinia spp isolated from children, less than 14 years old. Methods: This descriptive cross - sectional study was carried on 384 children with diarrhea whom referred to the Tehran children medical center, Tehran, Iran during August 2011 to August 2012. 384 fecal specimens of children were transferd to the laboratory and cold enrichment in alkaline buffer with pH of 7.2 for 21 days. The samples were cultured in Cefsulodin-Irgasan-Novobiocin Agar (CIN) differential media in 7, 14, and 21 days. The identification of Yersinia species were carried out by conventional procedure. Antibiotic susceptibility test to Ciprofloxacin, Co-trimoxazole, Tetracycline, Chloramphenicol, Erythromycin, Ampicillin, Gentamicin, Penicillin were determined by standard disk diffusion method. Results: Out of 384 fecal samples, 3 (0.7%) were infected with Yersinia. Three species of Yersinia were Y.enterocolitica, Y.Kristensenii and Y.frederiksenii. All three strains were sensitive to Cotrimoxazole, Tetracycline, Chloramphenicol, Ciprofloxacin and Gentamicin. Conclusion: This study showed that atypical Yersinia play important role in diarrhea. Therefore, more attention should be noticed to atypical Yersinia species in addition to Yersinia enterocolitica.
Ghandehari K, Dastani M, Shakeri Mt, Yazdani S,
Volume 17, Issue 2 (7-2015)
Abstract

Background and Objective: Cardioembolic stroke account for one-fifth of ischemic stroke and atrial fibrillation is the most common underlying cause. Taking an oral anticoagulation (Warfarin) is an effective way of preventing ischemic stroke but bleeding complication is common. This study was carried out to evaluate the validation of HASBLED score in prediction of hemorrhagic complications in patients with brain ischemia and atrial fibrillation under warfarin therapy. Methods: In this cohort study 112 patients with non-valvular atrial fibrillation in term of major and minor bleeding complications were followed to the predictive value of HASBLED criteria for one year. Major bleeding complications defined as intracranial bleeding, bleeding leading to hospitalization, drop of hemoglubin of more than 2gr/dl or requiring transfusion. HASBLED criteria were defined as hypertension, abnormality in liver and renal function tests, history of stroke, history of bleeding, large fluctuations in coagulation tests results, age more than 65 years and an Anti-platelet and non steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and alcohol use one point is awarded to each of the aboves. Results: During one year follow up, 10 (9.1%) of patients had major bleeding and 28 (25%) patients had minor bleeding. The risk of major bleeding was significantly related with a history of minor bleeding and HASBLED scores (P<0.05). The risk of minor bleeding was significantly related with warfarin toxicity and high INR (P<0.05). HASBLED score>3 was associated with the likelihood of major bleeding in future. Conclusion: Patients with HASBLED score>3 should be causious in initial stage of taking oral anticoagulant.
Rokni M , Abadi Mh , Saremi M, Mir Mohammadi Mt ,
Volume 18, Issue 1 (3-2016)
Abstract

Background and Objective: Musculoskeletal disorder is a professional disease which is due to undesirable work condition and is a disturbing factor of health and welfare in societies. This study was carried out to determine the prevalence of musculoskeletal disorders in nurses and its relationship with the knowledge of ergonomic and environmental factors in north of Iran. Methods: This descriptive-analytic study was carried out on 110 nursing staff in Razi and Imam Khomeini hospitals in north of Iran. Questionnaire of the rate of awareness measurement, general questionnaire of musculoskeletal diseases (Nordik), the questionnaires of the health status and the study relationships between some factors in work place were filled out for each nurse. Results: Prevalence of the pain in neck, back, low back, shoulder, knee, thing pain, arm, leg among nurses was 50%, 49%, 58%, 44.9%, 47.3%, 32.7%, 36.4% and 56.4%, respectively. The condition of work place including air filtration (23.6%), light (22.7%) and air condition (4.5%) was not well. Chair (31%) and work table (34%) for work condition and body position of nurses was unsuitable. There was a significant relationship between low back pain and age and time of working per week of nurses (P<0.05). Nurses knowledge in the filed ergonomy was 77% and 22.2% of nurses trained in body condition during work. 60% of nurses were not trained for correct patient transportation and relocation. Conclusion: Nurses suffered more from pain in low back, knee, neck and legs. Training of nurses for patient transportation and body position during working in hospital is essential.


Soltan Dallal Mm , Vafaei Z , Rahimi Foroushani A , Haghi Ashtiani Mt, Sharifi Yazdi Mk , Kavan M, Bakhtiari R, Nikmanesh B,
Volume 18, Issue 2 (6-2016)
Abstract

Background and Objective: Yersinia is a gram-negative bacillus that cause diarrhea through consumption of contaminated food and water.  This study was performed to identify the atypical Yersinia virulence markers isolated from children with diarrhea.

Methods: This descriptive cross -sectional study was done on 384 fecal samples of 0- 14 years old children admitted at children medical center from August 2011 to August of 2012. Fecal samples, for the enrichment, after 21 days of incubation in alkaline buffer with pH=7.2 at 4degree C, on days 7, 14 and 21 samples were cultured on CIN agar and Mac agar and then confirm the differentiation atypical Yersinia from other typical Yersinia species from fermentation of different sugars. Isolates were tested for marker of virulence including calcium dependence, auto agglutination, Congo red uptake and binding of crystal violet.

Results: Out of 384 stool samples, 4 (1.04%) were infected with Yersinia (Yersinia frederikseni, Yersinia kristensenii and Yersinia enterocolitica). Out of these three, only two samples in association was positive with virulence markers.

Conclusion: Phenotypic markers can be used to study the properties of phenotypic strains of Yersinia.


S Fazelipour , Z Tootian , Mt Sheibani , J Razmyar , R Hooshmand Abasi , M Minaei , Sh Kianii ,
Volume 18, Issue 4 (12-2016)
Abstract

Background and Objective: Soybean as a cheap protein and without side effects has been introduced to food industry. This study carried out to determine the effect of diet containing soybean on histology and histomorphometry of duodenal villi and serum levels of Calcium, Phosphorus and Glucose in mice.

Methods: In this experimental study, 30 female immature BALB/c mice with 3 weeks of age were randomly allocated into control, and experimental 1 and 2. The control group was fed a diet with complete protein. Animals in the experimental 1 and 2 were received a diet of complete protein with 40% soybean and 20% soybean, respectively. After 3 months the mice were anesthetized and blood samples were taken from the heart for determining serum level of Calcium, Phosphorus and glucose. Duodenum specimens from were prepared and stained with hematoxylin and eosin.

Results: Tissue structure of duodenum in experimental groups in compare to control group was not significantly changed, except for some scant specimens who showed some degrees of destruction in villi apicese. In histomorphometrical evaluation, the thickness of sub - mucosa and musculature were significantly increased in experimental groups compared to the controls group (P<0.05). The height of villi, depth of crypts and serum Glucose level were significantly reduced in experimental groups compared to the controls group (P<0.05), whereas the level of Calcium was significantly increased in experimental with the control group (P<0.05), but the level of Phosphorus did not show any significant changes in experimental groups compared to the controls.

Conclusion: Long term consumption of soybean can induce significant alteration in serum Calcium and glucose level, thickness of sub mucosa and musculature, the height of villi and depth of crypt in duodenum.



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مجله دانشگاه علوم پزشکی گرگان Journal of Gorgan University of Medical Sciences
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