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Showing 1182 results for Type of Study: Original Articles

Shirin Elah Dadi , Roya Lari , Masoud Fereidoni ,
Volume 0, Issue 0 (12-2023)
Abstract

Background and Objective: Esophageal cancer is one of the most prevalent cancers worldwide, and due to the placement of Iran in the Asian belt of esophageal cancer, the use of modern therapeutic approaches is necessary. Betanin is a natural compound extracted from the red beetroot of Beta vulgaris species whose antioxidant properties and role in removing free radicals have been proven. The present study was conducted to determine the cytotoxic effect of red beetroot aqueous extract on esophageal cancer cell line KYSE30.
Methods: In this descriptive-analytical study, esophageal cancer cell line KYSE30 was cultured and then underwent treatment with different concentrations of red beetroot aqueous extract (3, 30, 300, 1000, and 3000 µg/mL) in the three time intervals of 24, 48, and 72 hours. The anticancer effect of treated cells was evaluated by the tetrazolium (MTT) colorimetric assay and the effect of viability was evaluated by the trypan blue assay.
Results: The viability of esophageal cancer cell line at concentrations of 30, 300, 1000, and 3000 μg/mL of red beetroot aqueous extract within 24 hours was statistically significantly reduced compared to the control cells (P<0.05). The viability of esophageal cancer cell line in concentrations of 1000 and 3000 μg/mL of red beetroot aqueous extract within 48 hours showed a statistically significant reduction compared to the control cells (P<0.05). The viability of esophageal cancer cell line at concentrations of 3, 30, 300, 1000, and 3000 μg/mL of red beetroot aqueous extract within 72 hours showed a statistically significant reduction compared to the control cells (P<0.05). The MTT assay results approved the trypan blue assay results. Also, the trypan blue assay indicated that the concentration of 3000 μg/mL significantly led to reduced viability of cells within 72 hours (64.14±3.29) compared to 24 hours (77.22±3.34) and 48 hours (66.93±5.57) (P<0.05).
Conclusion: Red beetroot aqueous extract has a cytotoxic effect on esophageal cancer cell line KYSE30.


Amir Ali Jafarnezhadgero , Zeynab Noroozi , Ebrahim Piri ,
Volume 0, Issue 0 (12-2023)
Abstract

Background and Objective: Fatigue is considered one of the factors effective in changing the electrical activity of muscles so that it is directly linked to increasing the potential of muscular injuries and functional decline in various stages of sports. The present study was conducted to evaluate the frequency of electrical activity of lower limb muscles before and after fatigue during running in individuals with a history of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) compared to healthy individuals.
Methods: This quasi-experimental research was conducted on 14 women with a history of COVID-19 over the past two months (the experimental group) and 14 women without a history of COVID-19 (the control group) with an age range of 18-30 years using the convenience sampling method in the city of Ardabil. The fatigue protocol started using a sophisticated treadmill at a speed of 6 km/h, and the treadmill speed was accelerated by 1 km/h every 2 minutes. The Borg’s Rating of Perceived Exertion (RPE) 6-20 Scale was used to determine the participants’ final moment of fatigue. A steady-state running fatigue protocol ended at a score higher than 17 on the Borg’s RPE 6-20 scale or 80% of maximum heart rate. Electromyography data were analyzed using the data LITE biometrics software before and after the fatigue protocol.
Results: There was a statistically significant increase in the frequency of the electrical activity of the vastus lateralis (VL) muscle between the post-test of the control group and the experimental group (d=0.410, P=0.035). The pretest-posttest difference of the frequency of electrical activity of the VL muscle after fatigue compared to before fatigue during the loading response phase during running had a statistically significant increase in the experimental group than in the control group (d=0.602, P=0.016). The frequency of the activity of the semitendinosus muscle increased after fatigue compared to before fatigue during the mid-stance phase of running (d=0.261, P=0.005). The impact of fatigue on the frequency of the activity of the VL muscle during the push-off phase of running was statistically significant (d=0.140, P=0.049). The frequency of the activity of the VL muscle increased after fatigue compared to before fatigue during the push-off phase of running in the experimental group.
Conclusion: The increased electrical activity of the lower limb muscles in various phases of running after fatigue in individuals with a history of COVID-19 can be attributed to decreased neuromuscular coordination.


Asiyeh Esmaeili Irani , Bahare Nikoozar , Maryam Arbabiyan , Marziyeh Tavalaee , Mohammad Hossein Nasr-Esfahani ,
Volume 0, Issue 0 (12-2023)
Abstract

Background and Objective: Antioxidant apigenin (AP) is a natural, non-mutagenic, and less toxic flavonoid with pharmacological anti-cancer, anti-viral, anti-bacterial, anti-apoptotic, and anti-inflammatory activities. This antioxidant is easily received by the cell, binds to sperm DNA, and forms a DNA-AP complex, thereby protecting sperm DNA. The present study was conducted to determine the antioxidant effect of AP on human sperm quality after freezing-thawing.
Methods: In this descriptive-analytical study, 10 normozoospermic samples underwent freezing-thawing conditions, and sperm functional tests were investigated in different AP concentrations, including 0.4 mM, 0.2 mM, 0.1 mM, and 0.05 mM.
Results: The quality of total sperm parameters and functional tests decreased after freezing compared to before freezing. Among the AP concentrations, only in the 0.2 mM AP concentration, the improvement of the additional histone percentage, protamine deficiency, and sperm DNA health were observed compared to the control; this finding was not statistically significant.
Conclusion: The use of AP with a concentration of 0.2 mM during freezing-thawing culminates in improving sperm functional tests.


Mohammad Abbaszadeh , Vahid Tanhaie Marand , Hassan Malekinejad ,
Volume 0, Issue 0 (12-2023)
Abstract

Background and Objective: Bacterial nanocellulose is known as a potential carrier for a widespread spectrum of biological compounds, including antibacterial and antifungal compounds. The present study was conducted to determine the impact of bacterial nanocellulose containing Natamycin and Amphotericin B on Aspergillus flavus and Penicillium citrinum in an in vitro environment.
Methods: In this descriptive-analytical research, Aspergillus flavus-PTCC: 5006 and Penicillium citrinum-PTCC: 5304 fungi were prepared from the Fungal Collection of the Department of Microbiology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Urmia University. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and the minimum fungicidal concentration (MFC) of Natamycin and Amphotericin B against Aspergillus flavus and Penicillium citrinum were evaluated by the microdilution method. Bacterial nanocellulose was prepared using Komagata xylinum bacterium, and Natamycin and Amphotericin B were added in three concentrations of 0.01%, 0.05%, and 0.1% to wet and lyophilized nanocellulose films by the immersion method. Then, the antifungal effects of the film containing the above compounds against the investigated fungi were investigated by the agar diffusion method. Parchment paper was used as a control for comparison. Spectral properties of nanocellulose film containing antifungal compounds were evaluated by the Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) method.
Results: MIC and MFC of Natamycin for Aspergillus flavus were determined as 3.9 μg/mL and 7.81 μg/mL, and for Penicillium citrinum as 7.81 μg/mL and 15.62 μg/mL, respectively. MIC and MFC of Amphotericin B for Aspergillus flavus were determined as 7.81 μg/mL and 15.62 μg/mL, and for Penicillium citrinum as 15.62 μg/mL and 31.25 μg/mL, respectively. The increased concentration had a statistically significant impact on the antifungal properties of all films (P<0.05). The best antifungal effects of the film were related to the film containing Natamycin.
Conclusion: Bacterial nanocellulose containing Natamycin showed stronger antifungal effects in an in vitro environment compared to Amphotericin B against Aspergillus flavus and Penicillium citrinum.


Zahra Mahmoudabadi , Malihe Hadadnezhad , Raghad Mimar , Majid Hamoongard,
Volume 0, Issue 0 (12-2023)
Abstract

Background and Objective: Neck pain is a prevalent problem negatively affecting individuals’ health and quality of life. Therefore, the present research was conducted to determine the impacts of neck stabilization and thoracic mobility exercises on disability, range of motion, and endurance of females with non-specific chronic neck pain.
Methods: This single-blinded clinical trial was conducted on 36 females with non-specific chronic neck pain in three 12-people groups in the city of Qom. The subjects of the first intervention group (those doing neck stabilization exercises) and the second intervention group (those doing neck stabilization exercises with thoracic mobility) performed the exercises as three 60-minute sessions per week for 8 weeks in the gym, and the control group received a set of corrective exercises. Disability, the neck range of motion, and muscular endurance were measured by the Neck Disability Index (NDI), goniometer and the Progressive Iso-inertial Lifting Evaluation (PILE) test, and biofeedback sphygmomanometer, respectively.
Results: Disability, range of motion, and muscular endurance of the subjects in both intervention groups significantly improved compared to the control group (P<0.05). Compared to the first intervention group, the range of motion and muscular endurance of subjects in the second intervention group showed a significant improvement (P<0.05).
Conclusion: Doing neck stabilization and thoracic mobilization exercises was found to be an influential intervention in the improvement of disability, range of motion, and muscular endurance of females with non-specific chronic neck pain.


Fatemeh Akbari , Mohammad Rabiei , Banafshe Mohammadi , Sajad Bagherian ,
Volume 0, Issue 0 (12-2023)
Abstract

Background and Objective: Ankle instability is one of the most prevalent injuries among athletes. Biomechanical changes, sensory-motor impairments, and neuromuscular disorders have been reported in individuals with chronic ankle instability. The present study was conducted to compare the electrical activity of selected leg and thigh muscles during performing functional movements in female athletes with and without chronic ankle instability.
Methods: This case-control research was conducted on 40 female athletes in the age range of 18-30 years in two groups, including the case (with ankle instability, n=20) and healthy control (without ankle instability, n=20) groups. The electrical activity of selected leg and thigh muscles was recorded during three functional patterns, i.e., the overhead squat, overhead squat with heel lift, and single-legged squat, by electromyography apparatus. The investigated muscles consisted of the gastrocnemius medialis (GM) muscle, the gastrocnemius lateralis (GL) muscle, the tibialis anterior (TA) muscle, the fibularis longus (FL) muscle, the soleus (SO) muscle, the vastus lateralis (VL) muscle, the vastus mediali (VM) muscle, and the biceps femoris (BF) muscle.
Results: The activity of the VM, VL, BF, and TA muscles in the single-legged squat and the activity of the VM, VL, BF, SO, and TA muscles in the overhead squat showed a statistically significant increase in the case group compared to the control group (P<0.05). The highest difference in the muscle activity of the two groups was observed in the overhead squat with heel lift movement, which in this movement, except for the GL muscle, there was a statistically significant increase among all other muscles (P<0.05).
Conclusion: Functional movements culminate in increasing the electrical activity level of leg and thigh muscles in female athletes with ankle instability.


Sonayaz Hivehchi , Golbahar Akhoundzadeh ,
Volume 0, Issue 0 (12-2023)
Abstract

Background and Objective: The quality of life of mothers of children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is influenced by the problems of this disorder. Numerous interventions have been recommended for mothers with such children, including supportive interventions, cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT), negative mood management training, parent-child interaction, and family-oriented interventions. One of these interventions is quality of life therapy. The present study was conducted aiming to determine the impact of training quality of life therapy on mothers with ASD children.
Methods: This clinical trial was conducted on 60 mothers of 6-13-year-old ASD children referring to the Ofogh Clinic in the city of Gonbad-e-Kavus, Golestan Province, during 2022-23. Mothers were selected by the convenience sampling method and were assigned to two 30-people control and intervention groups using the random number table. The psychotherapy training based on Frisch’s (2006) theory on the quality of life was implemented on mothers in the intervention group as a group in eight 90-minute sessions for two months. The World Health Organization Quality of Life Scale (WHOQOL-BREF) was used to measure the mothers’ quality of life.
Results: The mean and standard deviation of the total quality of life score of mothers in the intervention group (76.15±8.85) had a statistically significant increase in the post-test compared to the control group (64.82±10.15) (P<0.05). Also, the mean and standard deviation of the quality of life of mothers in the intervention group showed a statistically significant increase in the post-test in the dimensions of physical health (65.12±6.24), psychological health (69.55±7.52), environmental health (60.66±16.8), and general health (78.33±10.9) compared to the control group (P<0.05).
Conclusion: The quality of life of mothers with autistic children was improved by receiving quality of life-based therapy.


Ay Naz Agh , Golbahar Akhoundzadeh ,
Volume 0, Issue 0 (12-2023)
Abstract

Background and Objective: Type 1 diabetes is considered one of the most common chronic diseases during childhood. Diagnosis and presence of chronic disease in the child create tension, worry, and problems for parents, particularly for the mother who is responsible for taking care of the child. The present study was conducted to determine the effectiveness of resilience training on the self-esteem of mothers of children with type 1 diabetes.
Methods: This clinical trial was carried out on 60 mothers of children with type 1 diabetes referring to diabetes clinics in the cities of Gonbad-e-Kavus and Gorgan, Golestan province, during 2022-23. Mothers were selected by the convenience sampling method and using a random number table and were assigned to two 30-people control and intervention groups. The resilience training program was implemented for the intervention group in 5-people groups for nine 90-minute sessions during 2 months. The data collection tool consisted of a demographic questionnaire and the Coopersmith Self-Esteem Inventory (SEI) filled out in two pre-test and post-test phases. Scoring of poor, moderate, and strong self-esteem was carried out by obtaining scores of 26 and below, 27-43, and over 44.
Results: The mean and standard deviation of the overall self-esteem (22.73±3.26), social (7.32±0.79), occupational/social (7±1.46), and general self-esteem (44.73±5.03) dimensions had a statistically significant increase in the post-test in mothers of the intervention group compared to those in the control group (P<0.05). The mean and standard deviation of the self-esteem scores of mothers in the intervention group were evaluated as moderate at the onset of the study and strong at the post-test (P<0.05).
Conclusion: Resilience training culminated in increasing the self-esteem of mothers of children with type 1 diabetes.


Fatemeh Aghaei , Majid Vahidian-Rezazadeh , Keyvan Hejazi*,
Volume 0, Issue 0 (12-2023)
Abstract

Background and Objective: Oxidative stress can harm cells, proteins, and DNA and play a role in the aging process. The present study was conducted to determine the impacts of six weeks of Pilates exercises and Lycium barbarum supplement on oxidative stress indices of saliva and body composition of inactive elderly females.
Methods: This field trial was carried out on 49 inactive elderly females. The subjects were selected in a purposeful manner and were randomly assigned to 4 groups, including control, supplement, exercise, and exercise plus supplement. The exercise program protocol was implemented for six weeks, three 45-60 minute sessions per week with an intensity of 50-70% maximum heart rate. The Lycium barbarum supplement group used 14 g of supplement daily. Oxidative stress indices of saliva and body composition were compared. The individuals’ physical activity level was determined using the Kaiser Physical Activity Survey (KPAS) and the samples’ health status was specified using the Physical Activity Readiness Questionnaire (PAR-Q).
Results: The amount of malondialdehyde had a statistically significant reduction in the exercise plus supplement group compared to the control group, the exercise group, and the supplement group (P<0.05). The amount of malondialdehyde was not statistically significant in the exercise group and the supplement group compared to the control group. The amount of salivary catalase was not statistically significant in the exercise group plus supplement group compared to the control group, the exercise group, and the supplement group. The amount of salivary catalase had a statistically significant increase in the exercise group compared to the control group and the supplement group (P<0.05). The amount of glutathione peroxidase had no statistically significant difference in the exercise plus supplement group compared to the control group but had a statistically significant increase compared to the supplement group (P<0.05). The amount of glutathione peroxidase had a statistically significant increase in the exercise group than in the supplement group (P<0.05).
Conclusion: Regular exercise with moderate intensity and Lycium barbarum supplement resulted in improved antioxidant function and body composition in inactive elderly females.


Saeedi M (msc), Baradaran H (phd), Hatef Mr (md),
Volume 1, Issue 1 (3-1999)
Abstract

Anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic antibody (ANCA) are produced against lysozomal constituents and primary granules of myeloid cells (Neutrophiles & monocytes) in some rheumatic diseases and wegner’s granulomtosis (WG). This antibodies not only may related to onset of vasculitis lesions, but also have a valuable diagnostic tool, thus, first we tired to evaluated the prevalence of this antibodies in 65 serum of patients with RA and 42 serum of patients with SLE. By using of indirect immunoflourescence assay (IFA), two staining patterns are recognized: Cytoplasmic (C-ANCA) pattern which in 80% of results from anti-PR3, and prenuclear (P-ANCA) pattern, which can result from any antibody directed to myeloperoxidase (MPO), cathepsin G (CG) lactoferrin (LF), elastsae (HLE) and lysozyme (LZ). The sensitivity and specificity for SLE from 1:128 serum dilution was 8% and 85.1% respectively, and for RA from 1:16 dilution was 32.2% and 87.5% respectively. Of the 19 SLE, ANCA positive patients 18 (94.7%) had P-ANCA and 1 patient (5.3%) had C-ANCA and of the 23 RA, ANCA positive patients, 17 (73.9%) had P-ANCA and 6 patients (26.1%) had C-ANCA.
Ahmadpour M (md), Vakili Ma (msc),
Volume 1, Issue 1 (3-1999)
Abstract

In order to determine the relationship between breast feeding and growth pattern, the information about anthropometric measurement and feeding pattern in first 4-6 months of life and after that of 324 hospitalized children were recorded and analyzed results are as follow: 67.3% were exclusively breast-fed, 61.3% were breast-fed accompanied with non-maternal milk (Cow milk, formula, pasteurized cow milk) and 11.4% were fed with non-maternal milk only. 44.8% of the total patients had weight for the age under 5th percentile, 53.7% had height for the under 5th percentile and 26.9% had head circumference (HC) for age under 5th percentile of NCHS standard. 77.8% of infants under 6 months of age who had weight for age under 5th percentile never have been fed with breast milk. In the other hand 72.2% of patients with weight for age between 5-100th percentile fed exclusively with breast milk in first 4-6 months of life (P<0.03). 63.2% of infants aged 6-12 months with weight for age under 5th percentile have never been fed with breast milk in first 4-6 months or did not commence supplementary food on time. This study suggest that exclusively breast-feeding in first 4-6 months of life and continuation of breast milk beside supplementary food on proper time can provide better growth potential relative to other options.
Farajollahi M (md), Marjani Aj (phd), Ahangari T (phd), Vakili Ma (msc), Saghali Nm (md),
Volume 1, Issue 1 (3-1999)
Abstract

Urinary tract infection is one of the most common bacteria infections. The incidence of urinary tract infections in school age is more common in girls than in boys. Children have to be screened for asymptomatic bacteriuria before they reach to the state of renal damage. In our district no such study has been made to determine the prevalence of bacteriuria. Urine samples were collected from 642 school girls aged between 6-11 years, and were investigated by doing urine analysis and urine culture. 15 girls had significant bacteriuria, (>10^5 bacteria/ml). 11 children had pyuria (WBC>5), and 6 samples had both significant bacteriuria and pyuria. At the same time there were 5 cases with sterile pyuria. 6 girls had nitrite in their urine samples. All of the urine samples with positive nitrite test had significant bacteriuria. The study shows that there is a positive correlation between pyuria of nitrite and significant bacteriuria. Escherichia-coli is the most common microorganism in schoolgirls with significant bacteriuria. The incidence of screening bacteriuria was 2.3% which most of them were asymptomatic.
Khori V (phd), Nayebpour Sm (phd), Ashrafian Y (pharm.d), Hajiakhondi A (phd),
Volume 1, Issue 1 (3-1999)
Abstract

This study was designed to evaluate the effects of total extract of Phytolacca Decandra on electrophysiological properties of atrioventricular node. Male rat heart after isolation was attached to a Langendorff perfusion system. The stimulation protocol was carried out during control condition (No intervention) and on the presence of selected concentration (1.10-7 %w/v, 2.10-7 %w/v, 5.10-7 %w/v) of Phytolacca Decandra. The basic (Wenchebach, AVCT and ERP) and functional (Recovery) properties of AV-node were studied in solated, perfused male rat cardiac preparations. Total extract of P.decandra significantly increased WBCL, AVCT and ERP in the concentration dependent manner, but had no significant effect on the time constant of recovery. The results of this study demonstrate that total extract of P.decandra had parasympathic-like effect on time-independent properties of AV-node and the above results also showed a potential anti-arrhythmic role of P.decandra in terminating supraventricular tachyarrhythmia.
Mohammadian S (md), Bazrafshan Hr (md), Azizi F (md), Vakili Ma (msc),
Volume 1, Issue 1 (3-1999)
Abstract

In this case-control study, 58 transfusion-dependent Thalassemic patients compared with 46 normal healthy persons on study of their thyroid size & function. In this study, thalassemia patients divided in two groups: Group one 31 patients with (Ferritin<1500) and group two 27 patients with (Ferritin>1500) and 3rd one was named control group (46 healthy persons). These groups were compared to achieve the best possible results and conclusion out of 31 patients. From first group 26 people had normal thyroid function test only 5 patients (16%) had goiter. From 27 patients in second group, 5 people (19%) had normal thyroid and 22 patients had goiter, in 3rd group 29% had normal thyroid, the difference between second and third groups were significant (P<0.01). In second group T4 level were lower than control, instead the TSH level were more than control group. The difference in second and third group were significant. The mean of T3 and T4 in group one and three don’t have significant differences. Conclusion: The goiter incidence and hypothyroidism in major Thalassemia with poor control (Ferritin>1500) are high.
Azarhoush R (md),
Volume 1, Issue 1 (3-1999)
Abstract

The amount of stainable Iron in the bone marrow is frequently used as a means of assessing Iron stores. In our study marrow Iron assessed in needle biopsy sections and simultaneously obtained aspirated smears from 75 patients. Significantly different amounts of stainable Iron were observed in needle biopsy and aspirated smears in 53.3% of the specimen. The usual difference consisted of significantly less stainable Iron in needle biopsy sections as compared to the aspirated smears (49.3%). In according to this study, in comparison of needle biopsy section to aspirated smears (As a golden test), sensitivity and specificity were 88 and 64 percent, respectively. Also, positive and negative predictive values were 56.5 and 91%, respectively. It can be appreciated that marrow assessment of Iron content may be associated with distinct differences between the needle biopsy specimens, and the aspirated smears, and could lead to diagnostic error, although, with some limitations and cautions biopsy specimen can be used for Iron assessment.
Ghazimoghadam B (md), Jabalameli P (md),
Volume 1, Issue 2 (6-1999)
Abstract

In this study 32 patients whom had only one superficial bladder tumor (T?-T1 stage) were selected to investigate the effectiveness of either BCG of Alfa-Interferon in preventing the recurrence of tumor. The other aim of this study was to compare the ideal regiment for the patient. These patients previously had neither tumor nor immunotherapy. The patients were divided randomly into two groups, each consisting of 16 people, and they were given the chosen medicine two weeks after surgery of tumor, which is usually superficial tumor (TCC type). 10 million unit of Alfa-Interferon in amount of 7 dose was injected weekly in those patients in group 1 and 120 mg BCG in group 2 respectively. Tumor recurrence in those patients, which receive interferon, was 50% and those that receive BCG was 18.5% respectively (P=0.07). The average recurrence of tumor in group 1 was 0.046 for one person per month (Patient/month) and the same index for group 2 was 0.015 recurrence for each person per month. Relative risk in equal to 3 (Relative risk=3) with accuracy of 95% between (0.87-10.38) but in those patients that were under ?-Interferon treatment only 4, and in BCG group 13 patients got the side effects of medicines.
Khoshbin Ar (msc), Mozdarani H (phd),
Volume 1, Issue 2 (6-1999)
Abstract

In this research we examined the sensitivity of micronucleus assay for monitoring clastogenic effects of low dose fast neutrons. Syrian mice (12 weeks old) were irradiated by fast neutrons emitted from a 241Am-9Be source. The absorbed dose was 1.5, 2.25, 3.375 and 5.06 cGy. Mice were scarified by cervical dislocation at different post irradiation times (24, 48 and 72 h). The results obtained show that the frequency of neutron-induced micronuclei in polychromatic erythrocytes (PCES) is significantly higher than those of control groups (P<0.05) at neutron dose used in this experiment. We concluded that micronucleus assay is an effective and also inexpensive method for monitoring clastogenic effects of high LET radiation in low dose levels.
Abdolahei Aa (msc), Zarkeshan R (msc), Azarm T (md),
Volume 1, Issue 2 (6-1999)
Abstract

Most cancer patients complain from pain in final part of their disease. One of the aims of health center, in the country is how to relieve pain from such patients. Therefore we tried to carry on a semi-experimental research to find out the effectiveness of Morphine by either continuous infusion or intermittence injection in such patients. We used non-random sampling, the total number of samples were 11 female and 9 male. These patients were on their final phase of disease. The process that we collected the information was based on the check-list which consist of two sections, in first part the demographic characterization of patients was recorded, using observation and interview with patients and in second part of these check-list the level of pain was assessed using visual analogue scale, which marked every two hours and finally the average of this scale in 24 hours is evaluated using as index in our study. Our results indicate that continuous infusion is more effective in relieving pain than intermittence injection (P<0.03). The results of this investigation showed that, age, sex and different type of cancer has got no meaningful variation in changing the main findings of this semi-experimental research.
Tajari Hr (md), Golalipour Mj (phd), Vakili Ma (msc), Okhovat Sh (md),
Volume 1, Issue 2 (6-1999)
Abstract

Cryptorchidism means undersecending testes, it is one of the most disorder in boy’s urogenital system. The aim of this research is to study the cryptorchidism prevalency in newborn boys in Gorgan. This research is a descriptive and cross-sectional study and the population under examination are those newborn boys that are given birth in Dizyani Hospital during 1377. 2318 newborn boys examined by standard physical method and the relation between this disorder and the following parameters has been the main concerns of this study, these are as follow: Either bilateral or unilateral cryptorchidism, mother’s age, parity, birth weight, maturating as birth, and race. The results of this study show, that from 2318 newborn boys 89 infant (3.8%) have cryptorchidism at birth. From those latter figures 2.3% are unilateral and 1.5% are bilateral. Our result indicate that there is a significant correlation between cryptorchidism gestational age (P<0.0001) and birth weight (P<0.0001) but there is no relation between cryptorchidism with mother age and parity. The present research also indicate that cryptorchidism prevalency in under-weight newborn and premature infant is considerably increased. The conclusion of our study indicate that cryptorchidism prevalency has got no significant differences from previous investigations.

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مجله دانشگاه علوم پزشکی گرگان Journal of Gorgan University of Medical Sciences
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