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Showing 15 results for Subject: Nutrition

Takhshid Ma (phd), Ai J (phd), Tavasoli Ar (phd), Ebrahimi L (phd), Momenzadeh D (msc),
Volume 12, Issue 1 (3-2010)

Background and Objective: Ulcerative colitis is a chronic inflammatory bowel disease in which free radicals play an important role in its pathogenesis. It is supposed that diet enriched with Omega 3 fatty acid and antioxidant compounds can be effective in the treatment of this disease. Grape seed extract contains potent antioxidant compounds. The aim of the present study was to evaluate possible useful effects of fish oil and grape seed extract enriched diets on the reduction of colonic damage and inflammation in acetic acid induced colitis. Materials and Methods: In this experimental study 50 male adult Wistar rats were randomly divided into five groups (n=10). Fish oil group (F group) received 1.6 ml fish oil, grape seed group (G group) received 50 mg/kg grape seed extract and fish oil + grape seed group (FG group) received 1.6 ml fish oil + 50 mg/kg grape seed extract orally for 1 month. Rats in control group (C group) and colitis group (Co group) received distilled water. After 1 month colitis induced in groups with intrarectal administration of 1ml acetic acid (4%) to induce ulcerative colitis. The control group received intrarectal saline. Two days after the induction of colitis the degree of tissue injuries and inflammation were assessed by macroscopical and histopathological scores of colonic mucosa. Results: Acetic acid administration induced ulcers, inflammation and severe crypts damages in mucosal tissue of the colon. The rats with colitis in the FG group showed significantly less macroscopic, microscopic damages and inflammation in colonic tissues compared with those in colitis group. However treatment with grape seed extract and fish oil did not result in any significant improvements in macroscopic and microscopic scores. Conclusion: The result of this study showed that fish oil and grape seed extract enriched diets before colitis induction play a protecting role against damages due to acetic acid induced colitis.
Hosseinpour-Niazi S (msc), Naderi Z (msc), Hosseinpour-Niazi N (bs), Delshad M (msc), Mirmiran P (phd), Azizi F (md),
Volume 13, Issue 4 (12-2011)

Background and Objective: Malnutrition in hospital increases the mortality of patients. The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of malnutrition and related risk factors in hospitalized patients. Materials and Methods: This descriptive study was carried out on 446 patients (217 males, 229 females) during 6 months, admitted to the Taleghani hospital in Tehran, Iran during 2005. Anthropometric measurements and previous admission to hospital in previous 6 months for each patient was recorded. Mild, moderate and severe malnutrition were considered as BMI=18-20 kg/m2 and TSF, or MAMC<10th, or weight loss<5% as BMI=16-18kg/m2 and TSF, or MAMC<5th, or weight loss 5-10% and severe as BMI<16kg/m2 and TSF, or MAMC<5th or weight loss>10% in previous 6 months respectively. Results: The prevalence rate of malnutrition as a general was 52% with following subdivision: 14%, 10% and 28% in mild, moderate and severe, respectively. The highest prevalence of malnutrition observed in gastrointestinal ward, males, those aged 18-29 year and patients with secondary and high school education. In malnourished patients, the prevalence of TSF, MAC and MAMC <5th were significantly more than of well-nourished subjects (P<0.05). Increase BMI per unit decreased the risk of malnutrition by 17% (OR: 0.83 CI: 0.79-0.87). Malnutrition was 64% higher in patients with 1≥ gastrointestinal disturbances, compared with those without it and 2.1 higher in patients with 2≥-hospitalized readmission, compared with subjects without readmission in previous 6 month. Odds ratio of at least one hospitalized admission in previous 6 month was 1.64 in patients with MAC <5th, compared with those with MAC 50-75th (P<0.017). Conclusion: This study showed that Malnutrition upon hospitalization is common in Tehran. BMI, gastrointestinal disturbances, and readmission were associated with malnutrition.
Hosseinpour-Niazi S, Sohrab G, Asghari G, Mirmiran P, Moslehi N, Azizi F,
Volume 15, Issue 1 (3-2013)

Background and Objective: Limited studies on the relation between the cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) risk factors and dietary glycemic index (GI) and glycemic load (GL) are available. This study was done to determine the association between glycemic index, glycemic load and cardiovascular risk factors in adults. Materials and Methods: This descriptive study was carried out on 2284 subjects (1327 males, 957 females) with 19-84 age in Tehran, Iran during 2005-08. Dietary GI and GL were assessed using a validated semi quantitative food-frequency questionnaire. Blood pressure, Anthropometric, fasting blood of glucose and lipid profiles including total cholesterol, triglyceride, high density lipoprotein (HDL) and low density lipoprotein (LDL) as a CVDs risk factors were measured. The mean intake of nutrient, adjusted for energy production, gender, age, according to GI and GL, using general linear model analysis covariance test was measured. Data were analyzed using SPSS-15, one-way analysis variance, Chi-Square, partial correlation and Linear regression. Results: The mean intakes of glycemic index and glycemic load were 68.3 and 244.8, respectively. Dietary GI and GL was inversely associated with whole grain and positively associated with refined grained, fruits, dairy products and simple sugar. After adjustment for lifestyle and dietary variables, dietary GI was inversely associated with triglyceride and HDL cholesterol concentrations among obese subjects. Dietary GL was inversely associated with fasting and 2-h blood glucose among non-obese subjects after adjustment for confounders. Conclusion: GI in obese men associated with serum increase triglyceride and reduced HDL-C. Glycemic load in a non-obese man is correlated with reducing fasting blood glucose.
Sadeghian M, Asemi Z, Samimi M, Tabassi Z, Saneei P, Esmaillzadeh A,
Volume 17, Issue 3 (10-2015)

Background and Objective: Modification of life style, nutrional regiment and insulin therapy is used for improvement of pregnancy outcomes in pregnant women with gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM). This study was done to evaluate the effect of the dietary approaches to stop hypertension (DASH) eating plan on pregnancy outcomes in pregnant women with gestational diabetes mellitus. Methods: In this clinical trial study, 52 women with GDM were randomly divided into DASH and control groups for 4 weeks. The control diet contained 45-55% carbohydrates, 15-20% protein and 25-30% total fat. The DASH was rich in fruits, vegetables, whole grains and low-fat dairy products, and contained lower amounts of saturated fats, cholesterol and refined grains with a total of 2400 mg/day sodium. The numbers of women whom commenced insulin therapy after dietary intervention, the mode of delivery and prevalence of polyhydramnios were assessed. The length, weight and head circumference of infants were measured during the first 24 h after birth. Results: 46.2% of women in the DASH group needed to have a cesarean section, this rate for the control group was 80.8% (P<0.05). The percentage of those who needed to commence insulin therapy after intervention was 23% for DASH group vs 73% for controls (P<0.05). Infants born to mothers on the DASH group had significantly lower body weight (3222.7 vs 3818.8 g, P<0.05), head circumference (34.2 vs 35.1 cm, P<0.05) and ponderal index (2.50 vs 2.87 kg/m3, P<0.05) compared to those born to mothers on the control diet. Conclusion: Consumption of dietary approaches to stop hypertension for 4 weeks among pregnant women with GDM resulted in improved pregnancy outcomes.
Ariannejad S, Mohammadian S, Khoddam H, Yasrebi K,
Volume 17, Issue 4 (12-2015)

Background and Objective: Malnutrition is considered as one of most serious disorder in childhood. This study was carried out to determine the prevalence of malnutrition and its relation to serum level of Magnesium, Zinc, Iron and Calcium in 6-36 months hospitalized children. Methods: In this case-control study upon CDC chart, 166 children were in control group diagnosed with no malnutrition and 151 children were also in case group with malnutrition. BMI and serum level of Magnesium, Zinc, Iron and Calcium were measeared for each child. Results: Out of 151 children with malnutrition, 128 (84.76%) and 23 (15.23%) were involved in mild and moderate malnutrition, respectively. The serum level of Magnesium and Zinc in case group was non-significantly lower than controls, while the serum level of Calcium and Iron non-significantly higher than controls. BMI was significantly reduced in cases in compared to controls and this reduction was related with malnutrition (95% CI: 0.38-0.59, OR=0.47, P<0.05). Conclusion: Malnutrition in 6-36 month children was not related to serum level of Zinc, Magnesium, Iron and Calcium, while children with malnutrition had lower body mass index.
R Fallah Mashkani , A Salehi-Abargouei , A Esmaillzadeh , L Azadbakht , A Hassanzadeh Keshteli , A Feizi , P Adibi ,
Volume 18, Issue 3 (10-2016)

Background and Objective: The growing evidence suggest on the association between dietary patterns and obesity. This study was done to determine the relation between pattern of nutrient intake and obesity in Isfahanian adults.

Methods: In this descriptive - analytical study, dietary data were collected using a semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire in 8,691 subjects aged 18-55 years. Complete data of 6,724 and 5,203 adults were available for general and abdominal obesity, respectively. Daily intakes of 38 nutrients and bioactive compounds were calculated for each participant. Factor analysis was applied to derive major nutrient patterns.

Results: Three major nutrient patterns were identified: 1) pattern high in fatty acids, cholesterol, vitamin B12, vitamin E, zinc, choline, protein, pyridoxine, phosphorus, and pantothenic acid; 2) high in thiamine, betaine, starch, folate, iron, selenium, niacin, calcium, and manganese; and 3) high in glucose, fructose, sucrose, vitamin C, potassium, dietary fiber, copper and vitamin K. Men in the highest quintile of the second pattern were less likely to be generally obese in the fully adjusted model (95% CI: 0.20-0.76, OR: 0.39, P<0.05). After adjustment for potential confounders, a significant positive association was observed between the third pattern and general obesity among men (95% CI: 1.04-3.04, OR: 1.77, P<0.05), but it was not in women (95% CI: 0.74-1.88, OR: 1.18, P>0.05).

Conclusion: Nutrient patterns were significantly associated with general, but not abdominal obesity in the male Iranians participating in SEPAHAN study.

K Mirkarimi , D Bagheri , Mr Honarvar , Mj Kabir , Rb Ozouni-Davaji , M Eri,
Volume 18, Issue 4 (12-2016)

Background and Objective: Individuals habit has been changed due to technology improvement as a result fast food consumption has dramatically increased in Iran. This study was done to determine the effective factors on Fast food consumption among high-school students based on planned behavior theory.

Methods: This descriptive-analytic, cross-sectional study was conducted on 500 high-school students in Aliabad city in Golestan province in north of Iran in one year study from October 2014-2015. A valid and reliable researcher-made and self-administered questionnaire based on TPB constructs (including attitude, subjective norms, perceived behavioral control and behavior intention) was utilized to collect the data.

Results: The frequency of fast food consumption was 4.01 per month and hamburger and pizza were the most prevalent fast foods. TPB explained fast food consumption behaviors with relatively high R2 around 0.65, effectively. Frequency of fast food consumption was significantly associated with behavioral intention and subjective norms (P<0.05).

Conclusion: As friends are the effective subjective norm for student fast food consumption therefore, they must specifically be considered in developing beneficial educational interventions.

Zeinab Gholami , Seyyed Morteza Safavi , Parvane Saneei , Awat Feizi , Peyman Adibi ,
Volume 20, Issue 2 (7-2018)

Background and Objective: Obesity is a major healthy problem wordwide. The incidence and severity of obesity is incrased in recent years. Satiety is described as a blocker of receiving more food after the end of eating. Satiety index (SI) is considered as index for measerment of ablity of food for losing of hungry and making satiety for more than 2 houres. This study was done to determine satiety index of low-fat yogurt (1.5%) and white bread in healthy adults with normal body mass index.
Methods: This quasi - experimental study was conducted on 30 healthy adults with normal body mass index for two consecutive days. In the first day, each subject was consumed 90 grams white bread and in the second day, each subject was consumed 526 grams of 1.5% low-fat yogurt within 15 minutes. The satiety of low-fat yogurt and white bread based on VAS and LIKERT scales was measeared. Cronbach's alpha was determined 0.98 for satiety of white bread and 0.947 for low-fat yogurt
Results: Satiety index of low-fat yogurt was 136.66±1.46 in compared to white bread (SI=100). The level of satiety after 120 minutes of consumption of white bread and low-fat yogurt were not significant based on the VAS scale, but according to the LIKERT scale, low-fat yogurt (1.60±0.43) significantly increased the Satiety index (P<0.05).
Conclusion: The satiety index of low-fat yogurt in adults with normal body weight was 136.66% compared to white bread that showed higher satiety of low-fat yogurt compared to white bread.
Somaye Fatahi , Mostafa Qorbani , Leila Azadbakht ,
Volume 21, Issue 1 (3-2019)

Background and Objective: Dietary acid load affects acid–base homeostasis, which may be associated with overweight and obesity as well as dietary quality index international (DQI-I), mean adequacy ratio (MAR), energy density (ED). This study was done to determine the association between dietary acid load with weight status and dietary quality indices among women.
Methods: This descriptive-analytic study was randomly performed on 306 women aged 20 to 55years. Dietary acid load was calculated by potential renal acid load (PRAL), net endogenous acid production (NEAP) and dietary acid load (DAL). DQI-I, MAR, ED were estimated for the participants.
Results: The probability of obesity (95% CI=0.97-5.50, OR=2.33, P=0.04), as well as abdominal adiposity (95% CI=1.21-4.50, OR=2.4, P=0.005) was significantly increased with tertile of DAL (P<0.05). While even after control of confounder variables, other dietary acid load indices (PRAL and NEAP) showed no significant association between dietary acid load and obesity, overweight or abdominal obesity. Also ,with increasing dietary acid load scores, DQI-I and MAR significantly decreased whereas energy density showed a significant increased across tertile categories of dietary acid load indices (P<0.05).
Conclusion: DAL was associated with increased risk of obesity and abdominal obesity. PRAL, NEAP and DAL were good indicators of diet quality indices.
Khadijeh Ashourpour , Ahmad Heidari , Isen Gharanjik , Elham Mobasheri, Samira Eshghinia ,
Volume 21, Issue 3 (10-2019)

Background and Objective: For many reasons, having children with the desired gender has long been a concern for human societies. Some studies have shown the effect of a maternal diet pregnancy on gender ratios. Considering that during the holy month of Ramadan, women's diet is undergoing a major change, and studies about the association of such diet change, especially the mother's fasting, on the gender of the fetus are rare and the results have contradictory; the present study, was conducted, to investigate the relationship of mother's fasting in the follicular phase of the last menstrual cycle and gender of newborn.
Methods: This descriptive - analytical study was conducted on 139 pregnant women who had started their last menstrual period before their pregnancy during Ramadan and referred to midwifery clinic of Sayyad Shirazi hospital or health centers in Gorgan city for prenatal care in 2016 and 2017. The data collection tool was a checklist containing the demographic characteristics of the pregnant mother, date of the last menstruation, gestational age, number of pregnancy and days of mother fasting.
Results: 86 pregnant women (62 %) were fasting and 53 non-fasting (38%). Frequency of newborn's gender in pregnant women who were fasting was 43 boys and 43 girls and in non-fasting women were 35 and 18, respectively. The frequency of boys in non-fasting mothers was higher than girls but this difference was not significant. In analysis of simultaneous effects of variables on baby's gender, none of the variables were statistically significant with the newborn's gender. Variables such as the number of pregnancies (P=0.051) and maternal fasting (P=0.083) non significantly reduced the ratio of boy born to 30%.
Conclusion: There is no relationship between gender of babies and mother's fasting in the follicular phase of the last menstrual cycle.

Niloofasadat Maddahi, Habib Yarizadeh, Atieh Mirzababaei, Leila Setayesh, Yasaman Nasir, Khadijeh Mirzaei ,
Volume 23, Issue 2 (7-2021)

Background and Objective: Mood disorders such as depression, anxiety, stresses, and low sleep quality are common among overweight / obese people. Accumulating evidence support the role of diet quality in brain function and behavior. This study was done to determine the relationship between dietary energy density and indices of mental health in overweight and obese women.
Methods: This descriptive-analytical study was performed on 301 women, referring to Tehran health centers, with mean BMI 30.7±3.7 kg/m2 aged 18-56 years during 2017-18. Based on a semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire, dietary energy density was calculated by dividing the total dietary energy intake from consumed food (kcal/d) by the total weight (g/d) of consumed foods (excluding beverages). Physical activity was measured using International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ). The questionnaire includes 7 items to assess the intensity of activities by the vigorous, medium, and light for at least 10 minutes during the last week. Mental health was assessed using the 21-question version of the Depression Anxiety Stress Scales (DASS-21) and the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index was applied for screening sleep quality. Weight, height, BMI, hip, and waist circumference were measured for all participants.
Results: Women in the highest quartile of dietary energy density had higher systolic and diastolic blood pressure but lower serum triglyceride (P<0.05), compared with subjects in the first quartile. Univariate (95% CI: 1.01-4.56, P=0.04, OR=2.15) and multivariate (95% CI: 1.13-5.79, P=0.02, OR=2.56) logistic regression analysis, adjusted for age, BMI, and physical activity, showed that dietary energy density was significantly related to increased risk of stress. No significant association was detected between dietary energy density with sleep quality, depression, and anxiety.
Conclusion: Dietary energy density was directly associated with the presence of stress, but not depression, anxiety and low sleep quality.

Navisa-Sadat Seyedghasemi, Mina Dazi, Bahareh Nikrad, Hasan Khorsha, Mohammad Reza Honarvar ,
Volume 23, Issue 2 (7-2021)

Background and Objective: The incidence of tuberculosis in Golestan province in northern Iran is 26.7 cases in 100000 persons. Lack of energy and nutrients is one of the reasons for the increased risk of tuberculosis. Malnutrition is an important cause of high mortality in the Tuberculosis (TB) population. With decreasing level of visceral proteins, anthropometric indices, and micronutrients increase the risk of mortality. This study was performed to determine the status of nutritional status of patients with Tuberculosis in Gonbad-e-Kavous, north of Iran during 2014.
Methods: This descriptive-analytical study was performed on 45 pulmonary tuberculosis patients with mean age of 57±20 living in Gonbad city, north of Iran during 2014. Demographic information and history of tuberculosis, body mass index, albumin, hemoglobin, total protein and blood cell count and food intake were recorded for each patient.
Results: 58% of patients were women. 52% of patient was resident in rural area. There was a significant difference in terms of body mass index and previous history of tuberculosis in patients with different disease intensities. Among patients with different disease intensities, the difference in the distribution of anemia severity was not significant. There was no significant difference between the two sexes in terms of disease severity distribution. According to the fitted regression model, the age variable, even in the presence of other variables, had a significant effect on disease severity (P<0.05).
Conclusion: With increasing disease severity, patients' BMI decreases and the severity of malnutrition and anemia increases. The severity of the disease increases with age. Tuberculosis patients need nutritional support.

Habib Yarizadeh, Leila Setayesh, Seyed Ali Keshavarz , Khadijeh Mirzaei ,
Volume 23, Issue 3 (10-2021)

Background and Objective: Obesity plays an important role in the development of chronic diseases including diabetes, hyperlipidemia, and cardiovascular diseases (CVD). This study was conducted to evaluate the association of the age of onset of obesity with resting metabolic rate (RMR) in overweight and obese women during adulthood.
Methods: This descriptive-analytical study was done on 295 overweight and obese women aged 18-50 years in Tehran, Iran. The anthropometric measurements of all participants were measured. Dietary intake and total daily energy intake were assessed by using a semi-quantitative food-frequency questionnaire (FFQ) which the list including 147 food items. Resting metabolic rate was measured by indirect calorimetric method. In order to measure the physical activity International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ) was used. The questionnaire includes 7 items to assess the intensity of activities by the vigorous, medium, and light for at least 10 minutes during the last week.
Results: There was a significant difference between those whose age of onset of obesity was under 18 or over 18, in RMR per body weight (kg) (Beta: 0.16, CI: 0.11 to 0.00, P: 0.03). In addition, it was seen a significant inverse correlation between age of onset of obesity and body weight (Beta: -0.11, CI: -0.30 to 0.00, P: 0.005) and adipose tissue content (Beta: -0.13,
CI: -0.23 to -0.01, P: 0.02). After adjustment for confounders including (age, physical activities, and energy intake), the correlations still remain significant.
Conclusion: Age of onset of obesity was associated with increased weight and fat and decreased resting metabolic rate in adulthood. In fact, people with lower obesity age have higher body weight and fat and lower RMR.
Marzieh Gorzin , Ensieh Gorzin , Hasan Khorsha , Ali Ariannia ,
Volume 24, Issue 3 (10-2022)

Background and Objective: Breast cancer is the most common type of cancer in women. This study was conducted to investigate the relationship between nutritional status and breast cancer.
Methods: This case-control study was conducted on 210 women (105 breast cancer patients and 105 healthy individuals) aged 20-89 years in Azadshahr (Iran) in 2019. Nutritional status was assessed using a researcher-made checklist.
Results: The majority of cancer patients were in the 40-54 years age group (49.5%). There was a significant difference between the case and control groups in terms of consumption of solid oil (49.5% vs. 31.4%), hot food (19% vs. 9.5%), carbonated drinks (29.5% vs. 21%) and the average number of servings of fried foods per week (3.2±1.79 vs. 2.3±1.73) (P<0.05). There was no significant difference between the two groups in terms of consumption of vegetables, type and amount of meat, animal oil, legumes, salt and tea.
Conclusion: The consumption of solid oil, hot food, carbonated drinks and fried foods could be associated with the risk of developing breast cancer.
Hengameh Ahmadi , Arman Eslami , Mohammad Reza Honarvar , Amrollah Sharifi ,
Volume 25, Issue 2 (7-2023)

Background and Objective: Nutritional knowledge can affect food choices and, as a result, sports performance. The study of nutritional knowledge, attitude, and performance in athletes can play a fundamental role in choosing the type of training and adapting suitable dietary interventions. This study was done to evaluate the knowledge, attitude, and nutritional performance of male bodybuilding athletes in Gorgan, Iran.
Methods: This descriptive-analytical study was done on 104 male bodybuilding athletes over 18 years old with a history of at least three months of continuous bodybuilding who were randomly selected from 13 bodybuilding clubs in Gorgan, Iran during 2020. Parmenter and Wardle’s standard questionnaire measured athletes’ nutritional knowledge, attitude, and performance. The questionnaire was completed by the athletes with the guidance of the researcher. A trained nutritionist collected anthropometric and body composition data using an Omron BF511 device.
Results: Poor nutritional knowledge, poor dietary attitude and poor nutritional performance was observed in 67.3%, 33.65% and 77.88% of the athletes respectively. A significant correlation was observed between nutritional knowledge with weight (r=0.23, P=0.02), BMI (r=0.27, P=0.01), and body fat percentage (r=0.22, P=0.02). Also A significant correlation was determined between nutritional performance with body weight (r=0.31, P<0.001), BMI (r=0.27, P<0.001), exercise time per week (r=0.22, P=0.02), and exercise timespan (r=0.32, P<0.001).
Conclusion: The level of knowledge, attitude, and nutritional performance of bodybuilding athletes was weak.

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مجله دانشگاه علوم پزشکی گرگان Journal of Gorgan University of Medical Sciences
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