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Showing 82 results for Subject: Physiology - Pharmacology

Roghani M (phd), Khalili M (phd), Baluchnejadmojarad (phd), Aghaie M, Ansari F (bsc), Sharayeli M (bsc),
Volume 12, Issue 1 (3-2010)
Abstract

Background and Objective: Reduction of serum glucose and lipids in diabetic patients due to medicinal plants is clinically very important. Therefore, the effect of Allium schoenoprasum feeding on blood glucose and lipids was investigated in male streptozotocin-diabetic Rats. Materials and Methods: In this experimental study, male Wistar Rats (n=32) were divided into 4 groups, i.e. control, Allium schoenoprasum -treated control, diabetic, and Allium schoenoprasum -treated diabetic groups. The treatment groups received oral administration of plant-mixed pelleted food at a weight ratio of 6.25% one week after the study for 6 weeks. For induction of diabetes, streptozotocin was administered at a dose of 60 mg/kg (i.p.). Serum glucose and lipids levels were determined before the study and at 3rd and 6th weeks after the study. Results: Serum glucose was significantly lower in Allium schoenoprasum -treated diabetic Rats at 3rd and 6th weeks as compared to untreated diabetics (p<0.05). In addition, serum total cholesterol did not show a significant change at 6th week in Allium schoenoprasum -treated diabetic Rats as compared to untreated diabetics. There was also a significant lower level of triglyceride in Allium schoenoprasum -treated diabetic Rats (p<0.05) and Allium schoenoprasum treatment caused significant improvement in HDL- and LDL- cholesterol levels in treated diabetic group as compared to untreated diabetic group (p<0.05). Conclusion: This study showed that oral administration of Allium schoenoprasum to streptozotocin-diabetic Rats at a food weight ratio of 6.25% has a significant hypoglycemic effect, reduces serum triglyceride and LDL-cholesterol level and increases serum HDL-cholesterol.
Modaresi M (phd), Messripour M (phd), Toghyani M (phd), Rajaii Ra (msc),
Volume 12, Issue 1 (3-2010)
Abstract

Background and Objective: The application of herbal extract are used as substitution to either drug or complementary medicine. Cinnamomum zeylanicum is one of the important herb which is used for various diseases. This study was done to determine the effects of Cinnamomum zeylanicum (Bark) hydroalcoholic extract on the level of hormones responsible for reproduction in male mice. Materials and Methods: In this experimental study, 48 male adult mice divided in six groups, hydroalcoholic extract of Cinnamon zeylanicum was injected intraperitonealy in different dose (50, 100, 200 and 400 mg/kg/every other day) for 20 days in groups 1-4. Normal saline was injected in only one group as placebo group and the other group was not given any substance and it was considered as a control group. All serum hormones level including FSH, LH and testosterone were measured by Radioimmunoassay (RIA) technique. Results: The concentration of FSH, LH increased following the injected dose of Cinnamon zeylanicum and the most increasing of FSH and LH concentration was in animals which receive 200, 400 mg/kg/every other day of Cinnamomum zeylanicum hydroalcoholic extract. The level of serum testosterone significantly increased in dose of 50, 100 mg/kg/every other day in comparison with control group, too (P<0.05). Conclusion: This study showed that hydroalcoholic extract of Cinnamon zeylanicum elevates the pituitary-gonadal axis hormones.
Vafaei Aa (phd), Miladi-Gorgi H (msc), Moghimi Hr(md), Ameri M (md),
Volume 12, Issue 4 (12-2010)
Abstract

Background and Objective: Several investigations have indicated the antinociceptive, anti-inflammatory, antipyretic effects and smooth muscle relaxant activity of Cassia species. This study was done to determine the effect of Cassia fistula on sleeping time and the level of anxiety in mice. Materials and Methods: In this experimental study, 80 male albino mice (25-30 g) randomly allocated in 8 groups. For measuring the sleeping time we used the Angle method and animals were divided into three experimentals (250, 500 and 1000 mg/kg) and one control group. For evaluating of anxiety levels, animals randomly were divided into three experimentals and one control group, and elevated plus maze (EPM) model was used. The evaluation of anxiety indices included number and percent of time spent in open arm. Different doses of the aqueous extract of Cassia fistula (250, 500, 1000 mg/kg IP) were injected intraperitoneally to the treated groups. Controls were recived 10 ml/kg/BW normal saline intraperitoneally in both methods. Results: The extract of Cassia fistula (250, 500 and 1000 mg/kg) significantly increased sleeping time [F (3, 39)=23.19, P<0.05]. Also open time [F (3,39)=15.55, P<0.05] and the number of open arm entries [F (3, 39)=24.21, P<0.05] were significantly in doses (250mg and 500 mg) were singnificantly more than control group, respectively (P<0.05). Conclusion: This study showed that the aqueous extract of Cassia fistula fruit incerase the sleeping time and deereasing level of anxity in mice.
Firozeh Z (msc), Bijeh N (phd), Ebrahimi Atri A (phd), Ramazani S (msc),
Volume 13, Issue 2 (7-2011)
Abstract

Background and Objective: Lipoprotein (a) [Lp(a)] is a new cardiovascular risk factor and its concentration increase cardiovascular diseases, while physical activity decrease cardiovascular diseases. This study intend to investigate the effect of eight week walking program on lipoprotein (a) concentration in non-athlete iranian menopausal  women.

Materials and Methods: Twenty two healthy menopause women of 47-55 year of age any specific disorder were enrolled in this study. The subjects randomly divided into experimental and control groups. Anthropometric characteristics including height ,weight, body mass index (BMI), body fat percent and Waist-to-Hip ratio (WHR) and serum lipoprotein on fasting were measured pre and post-walking program. The data were compared using independent t-test, U mann witny and pearson correlation caefficeint was used for assessement of relation between lipoprotein (a) with anthropometric indexes.

Results: According to these results, there was a significant reduction of serum lipoprotein (a) (pre test12.5±4/1 post test 10.5±3md), WHR, BMI and body fat percent prior and after the training in experimental group (P<0.05) while non significant changes was observed in control group. Also, there was non significant relationship between lipoprotein (a) with Anthropometric indexes.

Conclusion: This study revealed that 8-week walking program had useful effects on menopausal women’ serum lipoprotein (a) concentration, WHR, BMI and body fat percent.


Shahraki A (phd), Ghahghaei A (phd), Zakeri Z (phd),
Volume 13, Issue 3 (10-2011)
Abstract

L-glutamate is the major excitatory neurotransmitter in the central nervous system (CNS). It contribute in various physiological conditions such as brain development, synaptic plasticity, memory and learning. However, increasing of the extracellular glutamate concentration and overactivation of glutamate receptors in particular ionotropic subtypes leads to excitotoxicity which is the fundamental pathological pathway of neuronal injury. Due to lack of extracellular enzymatic destruction, the removal of released glutamate is achieved through the excitatory amino acid transporters (EAATs) which are distributed in glia that tightly surround the synaptic clefts, as well as in neurons. EAATs which known as Na+-dependent high-affinity glutamate transporters are the main responsible for maintaining extracellular glutamate concentration below excitotoxic levels. Moreover another membrane transporters regulating the flux of glutamate in different areas of the CNS. This system is cystine-glutamate exchanger (XCG-) that is Na+-independent system. Dysfunction of EAATs has been implicated in both acute insults e.g. stroke, trauma and chronic neurological and neuropsychiatric disorders e.g. amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, epilepsy, schizophrenia and Alzheimer's disease. Therefore, the purpose of this review article is to explain the pathway of glutamate biosynthesis, its release into CNS, discribing and elaborating Glutamate transporters, activites and their role in excitoxcity in CNS.
Goshadrou F (phd),
Volume 13, Issue 3 (10-2011)
Abstract

Background and Objective: Alzheimer’s disease is caractrized by brain degenerative alterations with subsequent learning and memory loss. Learning and memory is closely associated with brain colinergic system. Colinergic fibers originated from minent basal nucleus which is extended to cortex and hippocampus. This study was conducted to investigate sensory processing in the barrel cortex neurons of Rat model of Alzheimer’s disease. Materials and Methods: In this experimental study, 14 male Wistar Rats weighing 250-350g randomly divided into control and experimental groups. Alzheimer’s disease in Rats induceted, by infusion of ibotenic acid (5 µg/µl in each site) into nucleus basalis of Meynert (NBM) using Hamilton syringe and stereotaxic apparatus. The control group was non-lesion Rats with vehicle treatment. Two weeks after NBM-lesion, each animal was tested by passive avoidance learning (PAL), then neural response assessed by extracellular recording. Results: In cases, ibotenic acid infusion into NBM, significantly reduced memory (P<0.05). The results evoked by multiple whisker stimulation in extracellular single unit recording showed that in Alzheimer’s disease model of animals excitatory receptive field (RF) of neurons were extended but inhibitory RF was decreased (P<0.05). In addition the magnitude of neural response following principal whisker deflection decreased in cases (P<0.05). Conclusion: This study indicated that in animal model of Alzheimer’s disease possibly reduce sensory processing and contact discrimination.
Hashemi Sr (phd), Davoodi H (phd),
Volume 13, Issue 4 (12-2011)
Abstract

Antibiotics usage in domestic animals, as antibiotic growth promoters (AGPs) was considered from middle of 1950 onwards. Antibiotic feed additives as growth promoters have long been supplemented to animal food in very low amounts (5 to 20 ppm) to stabilize the intestinal microbial flora, improve the general performances, and prevent some specific intestinal pathogens. The widespread use of antibiotics as AGPs is playing a significant role in the emergence of resistant bacteria. The resistant bacteria in animals due to antibiotic exposure can be transmitted to human through the consumption of their products, from close or direct contact with animals, or through the environment and consequently, the increased concern about the potential for antibiotic resistant bacteria was led the European ::::union:::: and the United States regulations banning the use of AGPs in animal food since 2006. Various studies always look for a suitable replacement antibiotics to substitute to preserve the valuable role of these compounds. Extensive efforts on these alternatives have been started in last decades and some of these alternatives such as probiotics, prebiotics, synbiotics, ionophores, acidifier, organic acids, medicinal herbs and phytogenic can be pointed out. Hence, the aim of this review is to evaluate the antibiotic replacement strategy particularly medicinal herbs and their mechanisms as new growth and health promoters.
Kabiri N (msc), Asgary S (phd),
Volume 13, Issue 4 (12-2011)
Abstract

Background and Objective: Elevated levels of inflammation markers including white blood cell, platelet, serum fibrinogen and CRP are associated with prognosis in patients with coronary artery diseases. This study was done to determine the effect of hydroalcoholic extracts of Amaranthus caudatus l on Inflammation markers level in Hypercholesterolemic Rabbits. Materials and Methods: In this experimental study, 20 male Rabbits were allocated into four groups of five each: Group I Normal diet(75 days) Group II Hypercholesterolemic diet (75 days) Group III and IV Hypercholesterolemic diet (45 days) followed by Normal diet and Normal diet with hydroalcoholic extracts Amaranthus caudatus l., respectively for an additional 30 days(Regression period). Blood samples were collected from rabbits before and after 45 days and 75 days of respective diet regimen. The level of White Blood cell, platelet, serum fibrinogen and CRP were measured. Data analyzed by using SPSS-13 and one-way ANOVA‌ test. Results: CRP in treatment group reduced from 8.14±4.5 mg/l to 17.8±4.6 mg/l in hypercholesterolemic animals (group II) (P<0.05). WBC count was 20820±8692 and 42366±17048 in treatment and hypercholesterolemic animals, respectively (P<0.05). Platelet and fibrinogen concentration was reduced in treatment group 502600±35725 and 208±24 mg/dl, respectively in comparison with hypercholesterolemic animals 638000±59774 and 299±46 mg/dl, respectively. These differences were significant (P<0.05). Conclusion: This study showed that hydroalcoholic extracts of Amaranthus caudatus l reduces inflammatory markers in hypercholesterolemic rabbits.
Moosavi Sj (phd), Habibian M (msc),
Volume 13, Issue 4 (12-2011)
Abstract

Background and Objective: Fibrinogen, an inflammatory marker as well as a fundamental part of the coagulation cascade, is suggested to play a significant role in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis and complications of atherothrombotic diseases. This study was carried out to assess the comparison of acute aerobic and resistance training method on plasma fibrinogen concentration in young women. Materials and Methods: This semi-experimental study was done on twenty trained volunteer women students, which was selected objectively, and availability. The subjects were randomly divided into two groups of aerobic (n=10) and resistance training (n=10). Aerobic group performed exhaustive workout program on treadmill intensity 65 to75% of Vo2max on treadmill. The resistance group completed three sets of 5-7 repetitions of six exercises at an intensity corresponding to 80% of 1RM. Following 12 to 14 hours of nightly fasting, venous blood samples (5 cc) were collected pre, immediately after exercise and after 60 min of recovery and analyzed for fibrinogen content. Participants were matched according to anthropometric measurements, age, fat percentage and Vo2max. Data tested by using independent t, repeated measures analysis of variance and post-hoc test least significant difference (LSD) (P≤0.05). Results: In both the aerobic and resistance training groups, fibrinogen levels increased immediately after exercise and remained higher than baseline levels during recovery. This changes were significant only in aerobic group (P<0.05). Resistance training increased significantly the fibrinogen levels immediately after exercise than aerobic exercise (P<0.035). Conclusion: It can be concluded that the exhaustive aerobic exercise may induce slightly increase the fibrinogen levels in comparison with resistance training at intensity corresponding to 80% of 1RM.
Ashrafpour M (phd), Sepehri H (phd), Eliassi A (phd), Saghiri R (phd), Fahanik Babaei J (msc),
Volume 14, Issue 1 (3-2012)
Abstract

Background and Objective: The role of ion channels and particularly cationic channels in the pathogenesis of various diseases are being considered carefully. The diabetes mellitus is a common disease which is initiated by ion channel disturbances. This study was done to determine the characteristics of hepatocyte rough endoplasmic reticulum single cationic channel in Streptozocin- induced diabetic rats.

Materials and Methods: This experimental study was done on 10 male adult Wistar rats and animals were randomly allocaied into diabetic and control groups. Diabetes induced by STZ (65 mg/kg/bw) intraperitounally. Rough endoplasmic reticulum vesicles were extracted following rat liver excision, homogenization and ultracentrifuging. The bilayer membrane formation was prepared by painting phosphatidylcholine on 250µM aperture in between Cis and Trans sides. The RER vesicles incorporation was performed through gentle and delicate touch of membrane using a dentistry needle. The Pclamp9 software was used for ion channel activity characteristic analysis.

Results: The cationic channel current amplitude did not change significantly in voltages more than +3o mV but their open probability (Po) decreased in diabetic group (P<0.05). More severe changes in channel activity were seen in potentials less than the reverse potential. In addition to significant increase of channel Po (P<0.05), also, the channel unitary currents were significantly decreased (P<0.05). The mean current amplitude and channel open probability in voltage +40 mV were 17±2.14 pA and 0.68±0.01 in control group respectively, whereas, the values of these parameters reached to 18.5±2.5 and 0.26±0.03, respectively. In voltage -10 mV, the values of mean current amplitude and Po were -22.3±2.14 pA and <0.1 in control group, respectively but the values changed to -13.1±0.08 and 0.62±0.03 in diabetic group.

Conclusion: It seems that RER cationic channel is involved in metabolic changes which cause by diabetes mellitus and this disease can cause probably a channel gating kinetic and behavior change by inducing metabolic stresses.


Roghani M (phd), Baluchnejadmojarad T (phd), Roghani Dehkordi F (md),
Volume 14, Issue 2 (6-2012)
Abstract

Background and Objective: Chronic diabetes mellitus is accompanied with enhanced oxidative stress and reduce the activity of antioxidant defense system. Due to significant role of enhanced oxidative stress in development of renal damage in diabetices, this study was conducted to evaluate the effect of chronic administration of Silymarin on oxidative stress markers in renal tissue of diabetic rats. Materials and Methods: In this experimental study, 40 male Wistar rats were divided into 5 groups: control, silymarin-treated control (100 mg/kg bw), diabetic, and silymarin -treated diabetic groups (50 and 100 mg/kg bw). Silymarin was administered (daily and intraperitonealy) ten days after Streptozotocin injection for 4 weeks. Tissue level of malondialdehyde and nitrite and nitrate and activity of superoxide dismutase in kidney tissue were measured. Data were analyzed using ANOVA and Tukey tests. Results: A significant increase in tissue level of malondialdehyde, nitrite and nitrate in diabetic rats were observed (P<0.05). Silymarin treatment (100 mg/kg/bw) significantly reduced the tissue level of Malondialdehyde, nitrate and nitrate (P<0.05). Non-significant recduction of activity of superoxide dismutase was oberved in diabetic rats and Silymarin treatment (50 and 100 mg/kg bw) did not significantly altered enzyme activity. Conclusion: Four weeks treatment of Silymarin (100 mg/kg bw) reduce oxidative stress indexes in renal tissue of diabetic rats.
Jamshidpoor L (bsc), Frozanfar M (phd), Hemayatkhah Jahroumi V (phd), Kargar Jahroumi H (msc),
Volume 14, Issue 2 (6-2012)
Abstract

Background and Objective: In recent years, 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) consumption is prevalent among young people. It has adverse effects on central neural system and other organs. This study was done to determine the effect of MDMA on pituitary-gonadal hormonized axis in immature male rats. Materials and Methods: In this experimental study 35 immature male Wistar rats with approximate weight of 90+-10 gr, age range of 40-45 days were allocated in five (n=7) including experimental I, II, III, control, and shem groups. Animals in the experimental I, II, III have received 2, 4 and 8 mg/kg bw of MDMA intraperitoneally after 14 days, respectively. Animals have received saline normal in shem group while the controls did not receive any substance. The blood samples and testes have collected. The serum FSH, LH, and Testosterone concentrations and testes weight were determined. Data analyzed using ANOVA and Tukey tests. Results: Testosterone hormone concentration significantly increased in experimental groups (4 and 8 mg/kg bw) in comparison with control and shem groups (P<0.05). Concentrations of FSH and LH in the experimental groups (2 and 4 mg/kg bw) significantly reduced in comparison with shem and control groups (P<0.05). Testes weight significantly reduced in experimental groups (4 and 8 mg/kg bw) compared to control and shem groups (P<0.05). Conclusion: This study showed the MDMA has adverse effect on pituitary-gonadal axis and tests weight in immature male Wistar rats.
Mehrabadi S, Makvand Hosseini Sh, Miladi Gorji H , Nikfarjam Haft Asia M ,
Volume 14, Issue 3 (10-2012)
Abstract

Background and Objective: Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) impairs spatial learning and memory. Desmopressin acetate ameliorates the cognitive deficits induced by electroconvulsive shock. This study was designed to evaluate the protective effects of Desmopressin acetate on retention of spatial memory deficits induced by post-traumatic stress disorder in rats. Materials and Methods: In this experimental study twenty one male Wistar rats were used. Animals were trained for 5 consecutive days in Morris water maze and then were randomly assigned in three groups (Vehicle + Sham, Saline + PTSD and Desmopressin acetate + PTSD) and tested in a probe 60 sec in 24h after the last acquisition trial. The groups of PTSD+Desmopressin acetate rats and vehicle+sham, saline+PTSD were injected Desmopressin acetate (10 micro gr/kg body weight) and saline (IP), respectively. Injections performed ten minute prior to PTSD and spatial memory was tested ten minutes later. Data were analyzed using SPSS-16, One-Way ANOVA and Tukey tests. Results: The platform location latency of the Desmopressin acetate+PTSD group was significantly shorter (4.24 sec) than the control group (P<0.05) and also, had significantly smaller average proximity values (33.87 cm) compared to the saline+PTSD group (P<0.05). Desmopressin acetate + PTSD spent significantly more time (21.65%) in the target zone (P<0.05). Conclusion: This study indicated that Desmopressin acetate blocks the ability of PTSD to impair spatial memory retention.
Mirshekar M, Abrari K, Goudarzi I, Rashidy-Pour A ,
Volume 15, Issue 1 (3-2013)
Abstract

Background and Objective: Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is an anxiety, which is induced by exposure to life-threatening trauma and produces memory dysfunctions. This study was done to evaluate the effect of β-estradiol on traumatic memory after post-traumatic stress disorder induced by modified single-prolonged stress model in male rats. Materials and Methods: This experimental study was done on 70 male Wistar rats, weighted 200-250 grams. Initially 30 rats randomly allocated into control, shock and single prolonged stress accompanied shock (SPS&S). In SPS&S group immobilized for 2h, followed immediately with a 20 min forced swim conducted in a cylindrical filled with water. After recuperating for 15 min, animals anesthetized with ether. After 30 min recovery, stressed rats placed in the conditioned fear system (CFS). They received one 1mA, 4 second electric foot shock and remained in the chamber for another 60 second before being returned to their home cages. Shock group: Animals placed in CFS and only received the same shock as previous experiment. Naive group: Animals were removed from their home cages and exposed to chamber without receiving any foot shock. 1, 2 and 3 week later, animals in all groups were re-exposed to the shock chamber for 3 min, in order to examine conditioned fear response. In the second experiment rats were injected with β-estradiol (90 µg/kg), one and two week after training. Date were analyzed using SPSS-16, ANOVA and LSD tests. Results: SPS&S significantly induced freezing response (traumatic memory) compared with controls and shock groups (P<0.05) following three weeks. This response significantly reduced due to repetitive injection of β-estradiol in rats (P<0.05). After three weeks causes of enhanced freezing response (traumatic memory) compare with both, shock and sham groups (P<0.001). β-estradiol significantly reduced this response in rats (P<0.001). Conclusion: β-estradiol's administration following PTSD induction by modified single-prolonged stress, significantly decreased the freezing response. Therefore, β-estradiol can prevent the formation of traumatic memory.
Ahouei M, Vaezi Gh, Kalalian Moghaddam H , Alamalhoda F,
Volume 15, Issue 1 (3-2013)
Abstract

Background and Objective: Recent studies have shown that diabetes induced cognitive dysfunction and impairs learning and memory. Palmatine is an isoquinoline alkaloid, and has multiple pharmacological effects, including anti-diabetic and antioxidant activity. This study was conducted, to evaluate the effect of Palmatine on learning and spatial memory impairment in STZ-induced diabetic rats. Materials and Methods: This experimental study was conducted on the male Wistar rats (n=32) with approximate weight of 240±40 grams. The rats were randomly allocated and were divided into 4 groups (n=8): Control, Palmatine-treated non-diabetic, diabetic and Palmatine-treated diabetic groups. Diabetes was induced by STZ administration at the dose of 55 mg/kg through intraperitoneal route. Palmatine hydrochloride was administered subcutaneous at doses of 10 mg/kg/day 1 week after STZ injection for a period of 6 weeks. Blood samples were taken from the tail vein 1, 3, 5, 7 weeks after STZ injection to measure blood glucose levels. Behavioral tests including spatial recognition and objective recognition were performed at the end of study. Data were analyzed by using Prism-5, one way ANOVA and Tukey tests. Results: In spatial recognition test, the number of entrance in new arm of the Ymaze, in the Palmatine-treated groups significantly increased in compare to diabetic group in both sixth and seventh weeks (P<0.05). Number of rearing in new arm significantly increased in sixth and seventh weeks, compare to the diabetic group (P<0.05). The number of recognition novel objects in the Palmatine-treated diabetic group significantly increased in compare to diabetic group (P<0.05). Conclusion: Palmatine hydrochloride administration for 6 weeks improves cognitive dysfunction in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats.
Ahmadi R, Akbari Rad Sh, Moradi Binabaj M ,
Volume 15, Issue 2 (7-2013)
Abstract

Background and Objective: Immobilization stress has a variety of effects on the enzymes activity. This study was conducted to determine the protective effect of Aloe vera extract on the serum level of creatine kinase enzyme in male rates exposed to acute and chronic immobilization stress. Materials and Methods: This experimental study was conducted on 45 male Wistar rats weighing approximately 200±30g. Animals were randomly allocated into 9 groups of 5 rats: control, normal saline, chronically immobilized, acutely immobilized, chronically immobilized normal saline, acutely immobilized normal saline, Aloe vera extract (600mg/kg/daily), acutely immobilized Aloe vera (600g/kg/daily) and chronically immobilized Aloe vera groups (600g/kg/daily). Aloe vera extract with a dose of 600mg/kg/BW was administered by gavage feeding before applying stress. For chronic immobilization, animals were put under immobilization stress for 2 hrs a day for 3 weeks and for acute immobilization animals were put under immobilization for 8hrs a day for one week. At the end of the experiments, blood samples were collected using cardiac puncture method and serum level of creatine kinase enzyme (units/L) was measured by spectrophotometery. Data were analyzed using SPSS-19, one-way ANOVA and Tukey post-hoc tests. Results: Serum level of creatine kinase enzyme represented a statistical significant increase in rats exposed to acute (2368.20±104.96 units/L) and chronic immobilization (2177.80±234.75 units/L) compared with control group (1240.40±706.40 units/L) (P<0.001). The enzyme alteration level was not significant in Aloe vera (1619.80±171.41 units/L), acutely immobilized Aloe vera extract (1619.00±206.03 units/L) and chronically immobilized Aloe vera extract (1448.00±106.07 units/L). Conclusion: This study showed that gavage of Aloe vera extract (600mg/kg/daily) in rats can prevent the elevation of creatine kinase enzyme activity resulted by immobilization stress.
Roghani M, Khalili M, Baluchnejadmojarad T, Ahmadi M,
Volume 15, Issue 2 (7-2013)
Abstract

Background and Objective: Diabetes mellitus cause learning, memory and cognitive skills disorders in the long term. This study was conducted to determine the protective effect of silymarin on the learning and memory deficiency in streptozotocin-diabetic rats. Materials and Methods: This experimental study was conducted on 40 male Wistar rats weighing 240-300 grams. The rats were randomly allocated into 5 groups: control, silymarin -treated control (100 mg/kg), diabetic, and two silymarin -treated diabetic groups (50 and 100 mg/kg). Silymarin was daily administered (i.p. and daily) ten days after streptozotocin injection for 4 weeks. Finally, initial (acquisition index) and step-through latencies (retention and recall index) were measured using passive avoidance test and alternation behavior percentage as an index of spatial memory was determined using Y maze. The level of malondialdehyde in the homogenate hippocampal tissue of the animals brains was measured. Data were analyzed using Sigma Stat-3.5, one-way and two-way ANOVA, Tukey, and Kruskall-Wallis tests. Results: A significant reduction of STL was observed in diabetic (P<0.01) and silymarin-treated (50mg/kg) diabetic (P<0.05) groups and this parameter was significantly higher in diabetic group receiving a high dose of silymarin compared to diabetic group (P<0.05). Meanwhile, alternation percentage in diabetic animals was significantly lower than control group (P<0.05) and this index did not show a significant difference in silymarin-treated diabetic groups in comparison with diabetic group. In diabetic rats, there was a significant increase in the tissue level of malondialdehyde (P<0.05) and silymarin treatment with dosage of (100 mg/kg) significantly reduced the level of MDA (P<0.05). Conclusion: This study showed that although long-term administration of silymarin at a high dose (100 mg/kg) affects the ability to store data in memory and to recall it in diabetic animals in passive avoidance test, it does not improve short-term spatial memory in diabetic animals. The beneficial effects of silymarin may be via attenuation of lipid peroxidation in hippocampus tissue.
Baluchnejadmojarad T, Roghani M,
Volume 16, Issue 1 (3-2014)
Abstract

Background and Objective: Temporal lobe epilepsy is the most common type of epilepsy in human. Patients suffer from spontaneous seizures and memory deficiency. This study was done to assess the effect of Co-enzyme Q10 (CoQ10) administration on seizure, short-term spatial memory and stress oxidative indices in hippocampus of kainic acid-induced epilepsy. Methods: In this experimental study, 48 male rats were randomly allocated into six groups: sham-operated CoQ10 (10 mg/kg/bw)-treated SH kainate CoQ10 (2, 5 and 10 mg/kg/bw) treated kainic acid. CoQ10 was intraperitoneally administered daily for one week before intra-hippocampal injection of kainic acid (4µg/kg/bw) in animals. Results: Kainic acid induced chronic and acute spontaneous seizures in animals. Also, kainic acid administration caused a reduction in alternational behavior rate (consecutive or serially entrance into all of arms in triplet set), increasing of malondialdehide, nitrite level and decreasing of superoxide dismutase activity compared to sham group (P<0.05). Pre-treatment of kainate rats with CoQ10 decreased rate of spontaneous seizures (P<0.05). CoQ10 increased alternational behavior rate, decreased malondialdehide and nitrite serum level (P<0.05). But it had no significant effect on superoxide dismutase activity. Conclusion: Pre-treatment of kainic acid exposed rats with CoQ10 reduced rate of seizures and improved short-term spatial memory and oxidative stress indices in rats.
Ahouei M, Vaezi Gh, Kalalian Moghaddam H,
Volume 16, Issue 1 (3-2014)
Abstract

Background and Objective: Diabetes induces motor dysfunctions, Palmatine is an isoquinoline alkaloid, with anti-diabetic and antioxidant activities. This study was conducted to evaluate the effect of Palmatine on motor dysfunction in STZ-induced diabetic rats. Materials and Methods: In this experimental study, 32 male wistar rats were randomly allocated into control, Palmatine-treated non-diabetic, diabetic and Palmatine-treated diabetic groups. Diabetes was induced by STZ administration at the dose of 55 mg/kg/bw, intraperitoneally. Palmatine hydrochloride was administered subcutaneous at doses of 10 mg/kg/bw per day for a period of 6 weeks, one week after induction of diabetes. Blood glucose level was measured 1, 3, 5, 7 weeks after STZ injection. Locomotor activity tests including Y maze, grip-traction and inclined plane tests were performed to determining locomotor activity. Results: In Y maze test, the number of arms entered significantly increased in Palmatine-treated diabetic group compared to diabetic group (P<0.05). Grip traction and inclined plane tests significantly increased in Palmatine-treated diabetic group compared to diabetics animals (P<0.05). Conclusion: Palmatine hydrochloride administration for 6 weeks improves motor dysfunctions in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats.
Mirdar Sh , Ramezannezhad Aa , Arzani A, Alinezhad M, Hajizade A,
Volume 16, Issue 1 (3-2014)
Abstract

Background and Objective: Lead as an environmental pollutant can damage the immune system. This study was done to determine the effect of moderate-intensity exercise and Curcumin supplement on serum level of immunoglobulin A in rats exposed to lead acetate. Methods: In this experimental study, 46 male rats were allocated into six groups including Control (C), vehicle (V), lead (L), lead and exercise (LE), lead and curcumin (LC), Lead+exercise+curcumin (LEC). Animals in training groups ran on treadmill for 8 weeks (25- 64 minutes per daily, 15-22 meter/minute and 0% grade). Animals in Lead, LE, LC and LEC groups were received lead acetate (20 mg/kg/bw) and vehicle animals were received ethyl oleat (30 mg/kg/bw) Intraperitoneally for 3 days per week for 8 weeks. Rats in curcumin and LEC groups were received Curcumin (30mg/kg/bw), for 3 day per week for 8 weeks. IgA level were measured by single radial immuno diffusion method. Results: Lead acetate significantly increased MDA levels at P<0.05 in animals. IgA level was 0.2, 0.41 and 0.47 mg/dL in Lead, LE and LEC groups (P<0.05). Conclusion: The simultaneous use of endurance exercise training and curcumin due to increased IgA activity has beneficial effects against lead poisoning.

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مجله دانشگاه علوم پزشکی گرگان Journal of Gorgan University of Medical Sciences
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