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Showing 20 results for Subject: Infectious Medicine

Mohanna Yusefi, Mohammadrafi Damirchi , Alireza Norouzi ,
Volume 0, Issue 0 (2-2024)

Alavi Sm (md), Sefidgaran Gh (bsc), Albaji A (msc), Nezhad Eslami A (md),
Volume 12, Issue 1 (3-2010)

Background and Objective: Previous studies have shown that vitamin D is involved in host immune response toward Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB). The aim of this study was to determine if administration of vitamin D can improve treatment outcome and whether is able to increase the rate of sputum clearance of MTB in patients with pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB). Materials and Methods: This randomized clinical trial study was conducted on 96 patients with lung tuberculosis in Ahvaz, Iran during 2008-09. The patients were 18>=years old with sputum positive for acid fast bacillus. Patients were placed in two equal groups as cases and controls. Cases were treated by standard anti TB regimen plus 800 IU/day vit D orally. Controls were treated only by standard anti TB regimen. Follow up sputum examination for presence AFB was performed at the end of month 1, 2, 3, 4 and treatment period. Data were analyzed in SPSS-16 by using descriptive statistics test, chi square and fisher exact test. Results: Mean±SD age of cases and controls was 39.1±17.8 and 38.3±17.6 years, respectively. Overall cure rate in case and control was 93.8% and 95.8% respectively, with no significant difference. The rate of negative sputum of cases in the end of months 1, 2, 3, 4 and treatment period was 66.7%, 78.5%, 93.8% and 93.8% respectively, and for controls was 35.4%, 66.7%, 91.7% and 95.8% respectively. There was significant difference between two groups in the end of first and second month (P<0.05). Conclusion: This study showed that vitamin D as a supplemental drug does not improve the overall treatment outcome among lung TB patients, but it may be able to increase the rate of sputum clearance of Mycobacterium tuberculosis.
Alavi Sm (md), Ahmadi F (md), Nashibi R (md),
Volume 12, Issue 1 (3-2010)

Background and Objective: Previous reports on the effect of treatment on the serum immunologic parameters in patients with infective endocarditis are controversial. This study was conducted to asses the serum levels of CRP (C-reactive protein), RF (rheumatoid factor) and CIC (circulatory immune complex) before and after treatment in patients with infective endocarditis. Materials and Methods: In this discriptive study 30 hospitalized patients with infective endocarditis in Razi Hospital in Ahvaz during 2006. Blood samples obtained before and after treatment. 2.5 cc of each sample were used for CRP and RF and remaining 2.5 cc preserved at -20ºC until CIC examination. CRP and RF were measured by using nephlometry and CIC was detected by immundiffusion method. The data were analyzed using SPSS-16 and t-student test. Results: Out of 30 patients, 26 (86.7%) were male. Mean age was 29.53±10.28years. The mean values of CIC, CRP and RF before and after treatment were 0.847, 72.38, 60.45 and 0.80, 44.1, 41.2, respectively. The means of CRP and RF before and after treatment were statistically significant (p<0.05). Conclusion: This study showed that the serum level of CRP and RF reduce after effective treatments because most of the our patients were intravenous drug user, CRP and RF indeces may be useful measurment for treatment evaluation responses to infective endocarditis in these population.
Alavi Sm (md), Nadimi M (md), Shokri Sh (md),
Volume 12, Issue 2 (7-2010)

Background and Objective: Diagnosis of latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI) by tuberculin skin test (TST) is accompaind with limitations. A few documented data exist regarding the performance of serology tests for LTBI diagnosis in HIV infection. The aim of this study was to determine LTBI prevalency and compare TST results and IgM antibodies against M.tuberculosis antigens (IAMA) for the diagnosis of LTBI in HIV infected individuals. Materials and Methods: In this discriptive study, sixty two HIV infected subjects were chosen randomly from an addict treatment center in Ahvaz southwest Iran during 2008. The patients underwent TST, using 5 TU of purified protein derivative, and IAMA was measured. Data were analyzed using SPSS-15 software and Chi-Square test. Results: From 62 studied cases, 34 (54.8%) had positive result for TST, whereas 6 (9.7%) had positive IAMA. LTBI was diagnosed in 37 (59.7%) by either TST or IAMA. Overall concordance between TST and IAMA was 45.2%. In subjects with positive test by either TST or IAMA, only 4.8% had positive test by either diagnostic procedure. Discordant results were found in 54.8% of subjects. Positive results for both diagnostic methods in subjects with above and below 200 CD4-cell/mm3 did not show any significant differences. Conclusion: This study showed that LTBI prevalence among HIV infected individuals among addict patients, in this region is higher than other parts of the world. Also TST is a useful test for LTBI diagnosis is preferable to IAMA method.
Vaziri S, Khazaei S, Neishaboori Sm, Molaei Tavana P, Kanani M, Madani Sh,
Volume 13, Issue 1 (3-2011)

Background and Objective: Tuberculin skin test (TST) is the standard method for diagnosis of latent tuberculous infection. Positive results of TST (significant induration) may be seen in persons with latent M.tuberculosis infection and negative results of this test may be seen in patients with active tuberculosis. After performing TST false positive reactions may be seen with nontuberculous mycobacterial infections or false negative results may be encountered in anergic patients with tuberculosis disease. Quantiferon TB Gold test (QFT) is a new diagnostic test which assays the amount of released interferon gamma from peripheral blood lymphocytes in response to M.tuberculosis antigens. The purpose of this study was to determine the degree TST and QFT correlation.

Materials and Methods: This descriptive study carried out on 72 nurses of two internal medicine and infectious diseases wards of Imam Reza and Imam Khomeini hospitals in Kermanshah located in West of Iran, during 2009. 58 of nurses were vaccinated with BCG vaccine and none of them had any immune compromising condition. TST was performed by intradermal injection of 0.1 ml of standard tuberculin test (5 TU) and QFT was performed 48 hours then after using peripheral whole blood. The amount of released interferon gamma from lymphocytes in response to antigens were measured by ELISA method.

Results: Three of nurses excluded and this study was done on 69 nurses. Overall the degree of agreement of TST and QFT was 63.7% (P=0.69 and Kappa=0.139). The degree of discordance between these tests in PPD negative but QFT positive persons was 15.94% and in PPD positive but QFT negative persons was 20.3%. The sensitivity and specificity of QFT was 41.67% and 75.56% respectively. The degree of agreement of TST and QFT in vaccinated and unvaccinated nurses was 63.8% (Kappa=0.143) and 66.67% (Kappa=0.54) respectively.

Conclusion: There was no significant difference between QFT and TST in diagnosing latent tuberculous infection.

Pourmand Mr (phd), Sadighian H (msc), Abdossamdi Z (msc), Keshtvarz M (bsc), Mardani N (bsc), Ghoorchian S (bsc), Hadjati M (md),
Volume 13, Issue 3 (10-2011)

Background and Objective: Neisseria meningitidis is an obligate pathogen of human and temporary colonizes the mucosa of upper respiratory tract. This study was done to determine the frequency of pharyngeal Neisseria Carriage among 10-12 years old pupiles. Materials and Methods: This cross sectional study was carried out on 364 pupiles at four primary schools in Tehran during spring 2008 and winter 2009. The samples were collected from pharyngeal region and were cultured on Thayer-Martin Agar. Results: Among 364 collected samples from pharynx of pupiles, Neisseria meningitidis not found on the selective media, but three of pupiles were carrier of Neisseria lactamica. Conclusion: This study showed that Neisseria meningitides colonization was not observed in the pharynx of 10-12 years old pupiles.
Barati L (md), Ghezelsofla F (md), Azarhoush R (phd), Heidari F (bsc), Noora M (bsc),
Volume 13, Issue 3 (10-2011)

Background and Objective: Urinary tract infection is the most common bacterial infection during pregnancy. The pregnant women seems to be at risk for pyelonephritis and untreated infection. Timely recognition and on-time appropriate treatment of urinary tract infection particularly in pregnant women reduce the related complications. This study was done to assesse Sensitivity of isolated E.coli from pregnant women urine to antibiotics. Materials and Methods: In this descriptive study E.coli isolated from 360 urine samples from pregnant women, were examined, using Eosin Methylene Blue, blood sugar method. Antibiogram diffusion disk Kirby-Bauer was performed to assess the antibiotic response. Results: The persent of sensitivity of Escherichia coli to antibiotics were Co-amoxiclav (5.72%), Ampicillin (8.86%), Amoxicillin (11.87%), Cefazolin (32.12), Cephalexin (36.1%), Gentamicin (40.28%), Co-trimoxazole (48.15%), Nalidixic acid (55.3%), Nitrofurantoin (72.48%) and Ceftriaxone (80.78%). Conclusion: This study showed that there is a high level of E.coli antibiotics resistance toward Amoxicillin and Ampicillin high sensevity is related to Ceftriaxone and Nitrofurantoin in this region.
Cheraghali F (md), Yazarloo S (bsc), Behnampour N (msc), Azarhoush R (md),
Volume 13, Issue 4 (12-2011)

Background and Objective: The prevalence of hepatitis B infection is increasing worldwide. The main way to prevent hepatitis B transmission to newborns can be through accurate detection of HBsAg positive pregnant women and implementation of standard protocol for their infants. Therefore, this study carried out to determine the frequency of HBsAg in pregnant women in Gorgan, Iran. Materials and Methods: This cross sectional study was done on 1553 pregnant women whom attended to Dezyani hospital in Gorgan, North of Iran during 2008-09. Blood samples were taken and tested for HBsAg and HBeAg using ELISA method. Results: HBsAg was found positive in 15 (1%) pregnant women. However, HBeAg were negative in all cases. Seven of these cases (46.7%) were not diagnosed before admission to the hospital for delivery and therefore had not received any immunoprophylaxis or HBIG treatment for their newborns. In contrary, six mothers and their newborns received immunoprophylaxis due to falsely diagnosed HBsAg seropositive. Conclusion: This study showed that the current protocols for dealing with HBsAg seropositivity and case finding among pregnant women in this region should be thoroughly revised. Furthermore, it is suggested that pregnant women during third trimester should be screened for HBsAg.
Vaziri S (md), Khanahmadi A (md), Najafi F (md), Khazaei S (msc),
Volume 14, Issue 2 (6-2012)

Background and Objective: The vaccination against hepatitis B is a front line defence for all at-risk groups. Conventional methods of hepatitis B vaccination (0, 1 and 6 months) is considered a long process. But vaccination at shorter intervals (0, 10 and 21 days) is suggested to achieve rapid immunity. This study was carried out to compare for the protective antibody level against hepatitis B in accelerated and conventional vaccination. Materials and Methods: In this descriptive and analytical study 160 health personnel of Imam Reza hospital of Kermanshah, Iran with no history of vaccination against hepatitis B were selected and divided into two groups during 2009. The volunteers were received vaccination according to accelerated (0, 10 and 21 days) and convetional (0, 1 and 6 months) methods. The antibody titer measured two years after the final dose of vaccination. The acceptable level of antibody was considered higher than 10 IU/ml. Results: After two years the acceptable level of antibody was observed in 94.5% and 97.9% of subjects in accelarated and conventional methods, respectivley. This difference was not significant. Conclusion: This study showed that there is not significant differences between accelerated and conventional methods in antibody production against hepatitis B antigen.
Alavi Sm (md), Ahmadi F (md), Zargari N (md),
Volume 14, Issue 2 (6-2012)

Background and Objective: Risk factors of tuberculosis vary in communities according to different socioeconomic conditions. Knowing these risk factors help to control the disease. This study was done to determine the main risk factors of pulmonary tuberculosis acquisition in hospitalized patients. Materials and Methods: In this data based, case-control study 173 tuberculosis patients (as cases) and 305 non tuberculosis patients (as controls) hospitalized in Razi hospital in Ahvaz, Iran during 2001-07 were gone under investigation. Risk factors included injecting drug addiction, smoking, HIV infection, diabetes mellitus, imprisonment and corticosteroid usage. Data were analyzed using SPSS-13, Chi-Square and Fisher exact tests. Odds ratio was determined for risk factors. Results: Frequencies of the main risk factors in case and control groups were as: smoking 54.3%, 14.8% (p=0.0001, OR: 6.5), HIV infection 11.5%, 3% (p=0.0002, OR: 4.3), injecting drug addiction 18%, 3.3% (p=0.0001, OR: 6.7), diabetes mellitus 22.5%, 5.9% (p=0.0001, OR: 4.6) and imprisonment 20.2%, 3.9% (p=0.0001, OR: 6.2), respectively. Corticosteroid use and renal failure were similar in cases and controls. Conclusion: This study showed that smoking, HIV infection, injecting drug addiction, diabetes mellitus and imprisonment were the main risk factors for tuberculosis acquisition in this region.
Alavi Sm , Talebi Z, Bakhtiarinia Pp (md),
Volume 14, Issue 3 (10-2012)

Background and Objective: Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) pandemic is increasing word-wide. Tuberculosis is the main cause of death and low quality of life in HIV infected patients. The prevalence of Tuberculosis in HIV infected patients varies in different areas according to socioeconomic, cultural and geographical situation. This study was done to asses the pulmonary Tuberculosis risk factors in hospitalized HIV positive patients in Ahvaz, Iran. Materials and Methods: In this data based study all medical files of admitted HIV positive patients in Razi hospital in Ahvaz in south west of Iran were reviewed during 2001-09. Demographic characteristics and HIV Tuberculosis related variables were analyzed using SPSS-16, Fisher's exact test and Odds Ratio. Results: Out of 123 HIV cases 99 (80.5%) were injecting drug user (IDU), sixty eight (55.3%) had imprisoment history. Eighty one patients (65.8%) had Tuberculosis, in which 46 had co-morbidities such as infective endocarditis or viral hepatitis, 79 cases were IDU, 61 cases had imprisonment history and 24 cases had CD4 count below 200. There was a significant association between Tuberculosis and IDU, imprisonment and CD4 count (P<0.05). Conclusion: This study showed that the rate of Tuberculosis in HIV positive patients is higher than the rate in previous studies performed in Iran. Also exposure to Tuberculosis cases in prison, IDU and low CD4+ T- lymphocyte count are the main risk factors for Tuberculosis acquisition.
Taghavi Ardakani A , Soltani B, Sharif Mr , Moosavi Gha , Khademian M,
Volume 14, Issue 3 (10-2012)

Background and Objective: Hepatitis B vaccination has been conducted in neonates in the routine vaccination in Iran since 1993. This study was carried out to evaluate the serum hepatitis B antibody level in vaccinated children after 14 years in Kashan, Iran. Materials and Methods: This prospetive cohort study was conducted on 200 fourteen-year-old children which were selected via a simple random sampling method in Kashan, Iran drung 2008-09. This subjects were have been vaccined according to the govermental guildline at 0, 2 and 6 months old. Two ml blood specimens were obtained from children and serum hepatitis B surface antibody (anti-HBs) and hepatitis B core antibody (anti-HBc) were determined by ELISA method. Immunity was interpreted as anti-HBs≥10 IU/L. Data were analyzed using SPSS-13, Chi-Square and Fisher’s exat tests. Results: 92% girls and 95% boys, totally 187(93.5%) children had serum anti-HBs≥10 IU/L. Anti-HBc was positive in 3 (3%) girls and 5(5%) boys, totally 8(4%) which all of them had serum anti-HBS≤10 IU/L. No case of positive HBs Ag was detected. Immunity was detected in 11 of 18 (61.1%) children with birth weight<2.5 kg and in 176 of 182 (96.7%) children with birth weight≥2.5 kg (P<0.05). Conclusion: The immunity following the complete series (0, 2, 6 months old) of hepatitis B vaccination remained detectable after 14 years.
Adineh Ha, Motametdi B, Veisi M, Bagheri S,
Volume 16, Issue 2 (7-2014)

Background and Objective: Failure of tuberculosis (TB) treatment is a major problem of health systems in developing countries. This study was done to identify the Risk factors of tuberculosis treatment failure in the Sistan and Bulochestan province, the high risk region in South-East of Iran. Methods: This case – control study was carried out on 52 tuberculosis patients (smear -positive and category- I therapy) treated during six months period. Patients with treatment failure were considered as cases and patients with negative smear after 6 months of treatment with anti-tuberculosis (TB) medicines were considered as control group. Demographic, clinical and treatment outcomes were recorded for each patient. The multivariate logistic regression was performed to determine the predictors of treatment failure. Results: Family history of tuberculosis (95% CI: 1-12.56, OR=3.55, P=0.04,), smoking (95% CI:1.58-51.21, OR=9, P=0.01), drug addiction before or during the treatment period (95% CI: 5.28-123.91, OR=25.6, P=0.0001) and low body weight (95% CI:1.05-12.6, OR=3.65, P=0.04) were risk factors for treatment failure. Conclusion: Family history of tuberculosis, weight loss during treatment, smoking and drug addiction, were considered as risk factors for treatment failure in National Tuberculosis Control Programme (NTCP) in south-east of Iran.
Alavi Sm , Roozbeh F , Behmanesh F,
Volume 16, Issue 2 (7-2014)

Background and Objective: Indiscriminate use of antibiotics is one of the major health problems worldwide. Rapidly increasing incidence of antibiotic-resistant microbes warns healthcare authorities in the country to use drugs, reasonably. This study was carried out to assess the pattern of antibiotic usage in Razi teaching hospital in Ahvaz, southwest of Iran. Methods: This descriptive –analytical study was conducted on 17668 hospitalized patients in Razi teaching hospital Ahvaz, southwest of Iran during 2012. Proper or inappropriate antibiotic usage was judged based on existing national guidelines or guidelines referenced in textbooks. Results: 3119 of patients were received antibiotics which 20.4% of patients were being treated unnecessarily. 2482 (79.6%) of patients had indications for antibiotic therapy. Out of 2482 patients with indications for antibiotic therapy, 51.9%, 18.1 % and 6.5 % of patients were received incorrect antibiotic regiment, inadequate dose and unsuitable duration of therapy, respectively. The highest rate of unnecessary, inappropriate, incorrect duration and dosage of antibiotics were observed in internal, scorpion wards and the lowest was in infectious diseases and obstetrics wards (P<0.05). Conclusion: The pattern of antibiotic usage in Razi teaching hospital in Ahvaz was inappropriate. Unnecessary prescription, inappropriate antibiotic spectrum, inadequate dose and duration of antibiotics were inappropriate treatment strategy.
Moosazadeh M, Ashrafian Amiri H, Vaseghi Amiri R, Dehghan A, Nezammahalleh A, Khanjani N,
Volume 16, Issue 2 (7-2014)

Background and Objective: Due to the increase of incidence of extrapulmonary tuberculosis in Iran, This study was conducted to determine the epidemiological pattern of extrapulmonary tuberculosis in the Mazandaran province, northern Iran. Methods: This descriptive-analytic study was carried out on medical record of 3313 tuberculosis patients in Mazandaran province, northern Iran during 2001-11. Age, gender, affected year, area and affected organ were gathered for each patient. Results: 843 (25.4%) of subjects were diagnosed with extrapulmonary tuberculosis. The incidence of extrapulmonary tuberculosis increased by 4% for every unit increase in incidence year (P<0.05). The mean age of patients with extrapulmonary tuberculosis was significantly less than patients with pulmonary tuberculosis (42.8±20.6 years vs. 48.7±21.2, P<0.05). Extrapulmonary tuberculosis was significantly higher in women (P<0.05). The chance of extrapulmonary tuberculosis in women was 1.7 times of men. Lymph node (33%) was the most common affected organ followed by pleura (18.9%) and bone (17.7%). Conclusion: The trend of incidence of extrapulmonary tuberculosis was ascending during 2001 to 2011. The most affected organ in extra pulmonary tuberculosis was lymph nodes.
Khodabakhshi B, Tafreshi M, Aminolsharieh Najafi S,
Volume 16, Issue 2 (7-2014)

Borreliosis or recurrent fever is a spirochete disease which is caused by various species of borrelia and characterized by recurrent episodes of fever, chills and spirochetemia that could lead to multiple organ involvement and even death. In this case report, a 23 years old man was presented with shaking chills, fever and abdominal pain from a week before hospital admission. Borrliosis was confirmed following observation of Spirochete in peripheral blood smear. The patient was treated with doxycycline orally and one week after treatment discharged with a good general condition. Coincidence of borreliosis with underlying haemolysis in this patient was misled clinical presentation.
Khodabakhshi B, Abbasi A, Hashemi Fard A, Ghasemi Kebria F, Khosravian M,
Volume 16, Issue 4 (12-2014)

Background and Objective: Anti tuberculosis drugs therapy is the most effective method for controling the tuberculosis (TB). Early detection and appropriate treatment can prevent the TB-drug resistance. This study was carried out to determine the complications leading to hospitalization due to consumption of anti-TB drugs in patients with tuberculosis. Methods: In this descriptive-analytic study, 1550 records of patients with TB in urban and rural health centers of Gorgan, north of Iran were assessed during 2007-12. Checklist consists of demographic and clinical data for each patient was recorded in a questionare. Results: 44 cases experienced the complications of anti-TB drugs. 27 (61.4%) of cases with complications were women. 77.3% and 22.7% of patients affected with pulmonary and extra pulmonary tuberculosis,respectively. 38.6% of patients were diabetic. The hepatic complication was seen in 37 cases (84.1%). Skin and other complications were seen in 5 and 2 cases, respectively. There was not any relationship between drug complications and other disases. Conclusion: Hepatic damage is the most common complication leading to hospitalization in tuberculosis patients using anti-TB drugs.
M Qorbani , F Cheraghali , A Sofizadeh , Ah Yapang Gharavi , M Cherabin , M Yapang Gharavi ,
Volume 19, Issue 2 (7-2017)

Visceral leishmaniasis, also known as Kala-azar, is one of the main parasitic vector borne diseases, which transmitted by sand fly. The current study reported the seven positive cases of Kala-azar in Maravetapeh county in Golestan province, Iran from 2007-15. Using geographic information system, villages which had confirmed cases of Kala-azar were identified and their geographical information was registered. Villages with confirmed cases of Kala-azar were introduced as at risk villages for visceral leishmaniasis. All of these cases were aged under 6 years and in all of them fever and splenomegaly was reported. All subjects had lower normal range of hemoglobin and plateles. These cases were reported from 6 villages in 3 districts of Maraveh Tapeh County. All of these villages are in hot and dry areas of county and they have mountainous and semi-mountainous geographical status with higher altitude compare to other villages. Fifty two villages of county were recognized as at-risk villages for Kala-azar. Kala-azar presented in sporadic condition in Maravetapeh County. Continuous case finding of Kala-azar for early diagnosis and treatment is necessary.

H Sadeghzadeh, K Etemad , Y Mehrabi , H Hatami , T Riyahi , Hr Kamaliniya ,
Volume 19, Issue 3 (10-2017)

Background and Objective: Tuberculosis caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis is one of the deadliest infectious diseases in the world. The amount of the bacilli in tuberculosis will reduce rapidly by starting effective antibiotic treatment and the remained bacilli in the sputum will be an important scale to respond to treatment. This study was conducted to evaluate the examin factors associated with the conversion of positive smear to negative one in tubercular-pulmonary patients in Golestan province, in northern Iran.
Methods: This retrospective cohort study was carried out on 2093 patients with smear positive pulmonary tuberculosis registered in Golestan province, northern Iran from March 2009-14 referred to health centers. The outcome of this study was to determine the time of changing to negative of the first smear during the treatment and evaluating its relationship with demographic variables, the density of bacilli in the smear, culture, chest x-ray, diabetes and HIV.
Results: 67.5% of patients among 2093 smear-positive pulmonary tuberculosis patients were conversion rate of smear at the end of the second months. Results of Cox model showed relationship between gender, age, weight, density bacillus smear and culture results at the start of treatment and negative smears(P<0.05). Old age, low weight, high density of bacillus in primary smear in the beginning of treatment and increasing of the number of colonies in culture of positive smear patients were considered as predictor factors in changing positive smear to negative one.
Conclusion: This study revealed that Conversion rate and treatment success in Golestan province was less than what was expected.
Shohreh Azimi , Azar Sabokbar , Amir Bairami , Mohammad Javad Gharavi ,
Volume 22, Issue 2 (6-2020)

Background and Objective: Prisoners are among the high risk population for contagious infections such as HIV (Human Immunodeficiency Virus), HBV (Hepatitis B Virus), HCV (Hepatitis C Virus), TB (Tuberculosis), and other dangerous diseases. In spite of other countries in the world, data about the prevalence and risk factors for infectious diseases among prisoners are spars in Iran. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of HBV, HCV and TB coinfections among male prisoners suffering from HIV.
Methods: In this descriptive-analytical study, 100 HIV patients were selected. Microscopic examination (acid fast staining) was applied on sputum specimens and serological (HBsAg, anti- HCV) and molecular (Real time PCR and DNA sequencing) investigations carried out on patient’s sera.
Results: Among 100 prisoners affected with HIV, the prevalence of HCV, HBV and TB infections were 45%, 3%, and 9%, respectively. All HBV positive cases were genotype D, subgenotype ayw2. Among the HCV positive subjects, 34 (75.5%) and 11 (24.5%) were genotype 1a and genotype 3a, respectively. There was no significant relation between age, CD4 and transmission route of HCV in male prisoners affected with HIV. Drug injection was the main route for the acquisition of HCV, HBV infections.
Conclusion: This study showed that a high prevalence of HCV and TB infections among male prisoners affected with HIV.

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مجله دانشگاه علوم پزشکی گرگان Journal of Gorgan University of Medical Sciences
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