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Showing 13 results for Subject: Biochemistry

Shahraki Mr, Mirshekari H, Shahraki Ar, Allahabadi E,
Volume 13, Issue 1 (3-2011)

Background and Objective: Zinc is an essential ion for living and inter the body from different sources. Since Zn++ interfere on many cellular process such as biological function such as calcium chanalls, this study was designed to investigate the effect of oral ZnCl2 on glucose, Insulin, lipoproteins and liver enzymes in male Rats.

Materials and Methods: This experimental study was performed on 48 of Wistar-Albino male Rats randomly allocated into three exprimental and one control groups. Exprimental groups received 50 mg/l, 100 mg/l and 200 mg/l ZnCl2 in drinking water daily for four weeks but the control group received tap water. After four weeks, animals were anesthetized, sacrificed and blood samples were collected. Glucose, insulin, lipoproteins, aspartat amino transferase (AST) and alanine amino transferase (ALT) were measured. Data were analyzed by SPSS-11, ANOVA and Tukey-tests.

Results: The mean±SD of Cholesterol in group D (85.7±3.2), HDL in groups B, C, D (66.1±2.7, 67±2.18, 68.83±2.69 mg/dl) and LDL in groups B, C, D (2.8±0.9, 14.6±6.3, 13.4±2.8 mg/dl) respectively were significantly decreased compared with Cholesterol (125.5±4.9 mg/dl), HDL (80.5±3 mg/dl) and LDL (30.3±3.2 mg/dl) in group A. Mean±SD of glucose, insulin, triglyceride and liver enzymes did not show any differences among the groups.

Conclusion: This study showed that ZnCl2 added on drinking water reduce serum lipoproteins in male Rats.

Elsagh A (msc),
Volume 13, Issue 4 (12-2011)

Background and Objective: Fish as well as other aquatic animals have become an important source of protein diets. Heavy metals due to their specific physical and chemical characteristics as well as their side effects on various ecosystems are considered as a major contaminator of marine environments. Therefore determine determination of Zinc (Zn), Copper (Cu), Cobalt (Co) and Manganese (Mn) intensity in Rutilus frisii kutum and Cyprinus carpio fishes of Caspian sea. Materials and Methods: In this descriptive study, levels of Zinc, Copper, Cobalt and Manganese were evaluated, using flame atomic absorption spectroscopy (A.S.S) technique, in tissues of two commonly consumed fish in Iran, namely Rutilus frisii kutum and Cyprinus carpio, collected from the southern coastline of the Caspian sea. Results: The mean±SD average concentration of Zn, Cu, Co and Mn were detected as (μg g-1) dry weight of Rutilus frisii kutum’s tissues were 29.97±0.57, 9.45±0.09, 0.30±0.01 and 0.20±0.01, respectively. These values for Cyprinus carpio were detected as: 30.20±0.14, 9.14±0.07, 1.08±0.03 and 0.71±0.02, respectively. Conclusion: This study showed that, the concentration of Zn, Cu and Co in Rutilus frisii kutum, Cyprinus carpio fish tissues were higher than standard base of Brian.
Eizadi M (msc), Zarifyan A (phd), Sohaily S (phd), Khorshidi D (msc), Doaly H (msc),
Volume 14, Issue 1 (3-2012)

Background and Objective: Ghrelin is an acylated 28-amino-acid peptide that is the most recently identified adipocytokines, but its role in diabetes is poorly clarified. The objective of this study was to determine the relation between serum ghrelin and blood glucose levels in type 2 diabetic obese males.

Materials and Methods: This descriptive study was done on 45 adult obese males with type-2 diabetes in Saveh city, Iran during 2010. Fasting blood glucose, insulin and ghrelin concentrations and Glycosylated hemoglobin HbA1C were measured after overnight fasting. Multiple regression was used for determine ghrelin in relation to glucose, insulin and HbA1C.

Results: The multiple regression analyses revealed that HbA1C is not correlated with serum ghrelin levels, while, fasting blood glucose level had positive corrolation with serum ghrelin concentration (P<0.05). Serum ghrelin level had high negative correlation with insulin (P<0.05).

Conclusion: This study indicated that elevated endogenous ghrelin led to hyperglycemia. Therefore, serum ghrelin is a precise index of blood glucose level in obese male patients with type-2 diabetes.

Fattahi E (phd), Forozanfar M (phd), Bagheri Haghighi A (bsc),
Volume 14, Issue 4 (12-2012)

Background and Objective: Ecstasy [3,4 Methylendioxy Meth Amphetamine (MDMA)] exerts destructive effects on body organs particularly on the nervous system. The current study was carried out to measure the adverse effects of MDMA on hepatocyte and liver-specific enzymes. Materials and Methods: In this experimental study, 50 male Wistar rats were randomly divided in equal numbers into 5 groups: control, sham, experimental 1, 2, and 3. Animals in the experimental groups were received, intraperitoneally 2, 4 and 8 mg/kg of MDMA, respectively. The sham group were received normal saline but the control group was not subjected to any injection. Serum samples were collected and levels of three enzymes under study: alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) were measured. The sections from the liver tissue were prepared counting the hepatocytes. Data were analyzed using SPSS-16 and One-way ANOVA and Tukey's HSD tests. Results: Data indicated the levels of all three enzymes had been elevated in the animal groups that received MDMA and that the increase was statistically significant compared to sham and control groups (P<0.05). Also, in experimental groups the number of hepatocyte were reduced in comparison with controls (P<0.05). Conclusion: This study showed that the MDMA significantly increased ALT, AST, ALP and reduced the number of hepatocytes and these effects are dose depended.
Rostami M (msc), Aberomand M (phd), Khirollah Ar (phd), Jorfi M (msc), Malihi R (bsc), Noorbehbahani M (bsc), Jafari Ar (bsc),
Volume 14, Issue 4 (12-2012)

Background and Objective: The risk of coronary heart disease (CHD) is proportional to the LDL-C lipoprotein. Due to frequent use of Friedwald formula in estimation of LDL-C in most laboratories, this study was done to compare the Friedwald formula and direct measurement to determine the serum levels of LDL-C Materials and Methods: This descriptive study was conducted on of 598 patients 226 male and 372 female whome referred to Imam Ali hospital Andimeshk cityin Khozestan province of Iran for health check up during 2009. 5 ml of the venous blood was drown. Total cholesterol (TC) (mg/dl), Triglyceride (TG) (mg/dl), HDL-C (mg/dl) and LDL-C (mg/dl) of serum are measured with Pars azmun company kits. The Friedwald formula was used for estimation of LDL-C. The K=3, 3.5 and 5 were used to stimate the lipid by Friedwald formula. Data were analyzed using SPSS-18, Pearson correlation coefficient and ANOVA tests. Results: A total of 598 serum samples collected 37.8% were men and 62.2% women. The mean age of participants was 38.8±10.77 years. Minimum age 21 years and maximum age was 77 years. Mean deviation for TG≤150, 201-300 and 301-400 in Friedwald formula (k=5) were -13.01±8.79, -17.11±13.17 and -18.63±18.54, respectively and with k=3 are -.39±12.04, -0.078±18.55 and 0.04±25.55 and for TG between 151-200 is -9.72±10.54 and with k=3.5 is equal to 0.82±13.70. Pearson correlation test showed that direct measurment and calculated from the equation Friedwald, for triglycerides in the area equal to or less than 150, 151-200, 201-300 and 301-400 mg/dl, with correlated to Pearson correlation coefficient were 0.982, 0.991, 0.991 and 0.975, respectively. Conclusion: This study showed that the direct measurement method is superior to the Friedwald equation, otherwise, equation Friedwald formula with K=3 is recommended.
Kadkhodaei Elyaderani M , Malek Askar Am , Rostami M , Aberomand M, Kheirollah Ar ,
Volume 15, Issue 3 (10-2013)

Background and Objective: Nitric oxide synthase (NOS) paly a role in nitric oxide (NO) generation. Despite the beneficial effects of NO on different body systems its overproduction of produce reactive nitrogen species (RNS) and nitrosilation of proteins. This study was done to evaluate the effect of asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA) and NG-Monomethyl-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NMMA) on inhibition of nitric oxide synthase activity. Materials and Methods: In this laboratory study, Nitric oxide synthase was extracted from 500 grams of sheep kidney by homogenization, ammonium sulphate precipitation and column chromatography on DEAE-32 Cellulose and 2', 5'-ADP-agarose. During purification, protein content was measured according to the Bradford and enzyme activity was assayed using the Griess reactions the inhibitory effects of 25 μΜ concentrations of ADMA and L-NMMA on purified enzyme were determined. Results: Specific activity and yield of NOS were 0.6 units/mg protein and 0.9%, respectively. Molecular weight of purified enzyme was 54 KD with SDS-PAGE. ADMA and L-NMMA in 25 μΜ concentrations reduced enzyme activity by 76 and 61.2%, respectively. Km values for NOS in absence and in presence of ADMA and L-NMMA were 5.32 μM, 31.25 μM (P<0.05) and 14.29 μM (P<0.05), respectively. Vmax for NOS in absence and presence of inhibitors was not changed. Conclusion: ADMA and L-NMMA have competitive inhibitory effect on NOS activity and ADMA have higher inhibitory effect than L-NMMA.
Aghagolzade Haji H, Khoshbin Khoshnazar Ar, Gharaei R, Javan B, Asadi J,
Volume 16, Issue 3 (10-2014)

Background and Objective: Valproic acid is used in the epilepsy, bipolar and migraine therapy. As a histone deacetylase inhibitor, Valproic acid has been recently under investigation in cancer treatment, either alone or in combination with either chemotherapy or radiotherapy. This study was done to determine the effect of Valproic acid and radiotherapy on viability of MCF-7 breast cancer cell line. Methods: In this descriptive - analytic study, MCF-7 cell line was obtained from the Iranian Pasteur Institute. The cells were treated and incubated by different concentrations of Valproic acid (1, 2, 4, 8, 16, 32, 64 and 128 mM) either alone or in combination with various dosages (0 .5, 2, 4, 6 and 8 Gray) of radiotherapy. After cell viability assay, using the Neutral red staining, the most nearest results to LD50 were selected. Cell viability was evaluated with trypan blue staining. Results: The most nearest concentrations of LD50 was doses of 2, 8 and 16 mM of valproic acid and dosage of Gray 4 of radiation. There was a significant dose-dependent correlation between reduction of cell viability with valproic acid concentration (P<0.05). Conclusion: Valproic acid, either alone or combination with radiotherapy caused a significant decline in the cell viability of MCF-7 breast cancer cell line.
Gholamian A, Divsalar A,
Volume 18, Issue 2 (6-2016)

Catalase is the one of the most important antioxidant enzymes that is found abundantly in liver and kidney. The alteration in activity and function this latter enzyme are widely investigated in various types of cancer to understand the cancer mechanism and its treatment. The changes in the catalase activity levels in a variety of cancer cells is as a specific property of tumor tissues due to the reducting catalase activity at mRNA level. In this review, various reports that examined the alterations in catalase activity and resistance to chemotherapy and its complications in the literature are summarized and discussed. Due to the important role of hydrogen peroxide in various stages of cancer process, catalase alters this process by detoxification of hydrogen peroxide. Chemotherapy increase free radicals to destroy the tumor cells, then, catalase activity reduced their impact on cancer cells. On the other hand, it might be concluded that production of drug resistance in chemotherapy is resulted due to increasing catalase activity. Therefor it seems catalase has contradictory influence on the treatment and development of cancer.

Sanaz Salar Amoli, Hamid Reza Joshaghani , Seyyed Isaac Hashemy ,
Volume 22, Issue 4 (12-2020)

Selenium is an essential mineral found naturally in soil, water, and some foods. Today, selenium, as an antioxidant, is one of the vital elements in the human body. Although the human body needs a small amount of selenium daily, recent studies have shown that the same small amount of selenium is essential for maintaining healthy body function. It is challenging to choose the right dose of selenium. According to several studies in this present review, a daily supplement of 31.5-200 micrograms seems beneficial since the amount of selenium in various diseases is less than the amount in healthy people. The articles published in PubMed, Web of Science, Google Scholar and SCOPUS databases were screened and collected based on the keywords including selenium, oxidant, antioxidant, diabetes, cancer, toxicity, heart disease and liver disease. These keywords were chosen because of the antioxidant role of selenium as well as the prominent role of oxidation in the progression of these diseases. 150 articles published over a period of 20 years from 2000 to 2020 were used in this study. Articles about nano-seleniums, non-dietary supplements, and diseases caused by the underlying disease of metabolic syndrome were excluded and finally 121 articles were included in the study. A limited number of studies show that patients with multiple disorders may need to take higher doses of selenium (82.4 to 200 micrograms) than healthy people. In this study, selenium's antioxidant role in chronic metabolic disorders, including hyperlipidemia and hyperglycemia, and some cancers, were investigated. Also, the clinical significance of selenium deficiency in metabolic diseases, as well as clinical and experimental observations on the effect of selenium dietary supplements in the treatment of chronic metabolic diseases such as diabetes and atherosclerosis, and cancers, are briefly mentioned. Besides, the recommended toxicity and dose of selenium have been discussed.
Roya Abbasinatajomrani , Durdi Qujeq, Reza Hajihosseini , Vahid Hosseini ,
Volume 23, Issue 3 (10-2021)

Background and Objective: Colorectal cancer is one of the most common cancers and considered to be leading causes of cancer death in the world. One of the problems with this type of cancer is its inability to be detected in early stage. The aim of present study was to evaluate the correlation between the serum levels of Fucosyltransferase-4 and galactin-3 in patients with early-stage of colorectal cancer.
Methods: This case-control study was done on 40 patients with early stages of colorectal cancer and 40 healthy subjects. ELISA method was used to measure the serum levels of Fucosyltransferase-4 and galactin-3. To examine the correlation between the variables, correlation test and Pearson correlation coefficient index were used.
Results: Fucosyltransferase-4 and galactin-3 levels were higher in patients with early-stage of colorectal cancer compared to healthy subjects. This difference was not significant. In patients with colorectal cancer, there was a significant relationship between the level of Fucosyltransferase-4 and galactin-3 (r=0.71, P=0.01).
Conclusion: Simultaneous measurement of Fucosyltransferase-4 and galactin-3 is useful in identifying early-stage of colorectal cancer as a non-invasive laboratory method.
Mandana Salehi , Kahin Shahanipour , Ramesh Monajemi , Parisa Mohamadynejad ,
Volume 24, Issue 2 (7-2022)

Background and Objective: Many studies have been done on the effects of ginseng and green tea on inflammatory factors and liver enzymes, but no research has yet studied the comparative effects of ginseng and green tea extracts with Pomeol Breuler on C-reactive protein (CRP) and liver enzymes in hyperlipidemic rats. This study was done to evaluate the effects of ginseng and green tea extracts in comparison with Pomeol Bruler on CRP and liver enzymes in hyperlipidemic rats.
Methods: In this experimental study, 42 male Wistar rats were randomly allocated into 7 groups. Animals in group 1 (control group) received a normal diet. The experimental groups 2-7 received a high-fat diet for a month. The groups were treated with the extract for 8 weeks and by intraperitoneal injection. Groups 1 and 2 received 77.5 mg/kg/day and 155 mg/kg/day green tea extract, respectively. Groups 3 and 4 received 103.3 mg/kg/day and 206.6 mg/kg/day ginseng extract, respectively. Group 5 received 0.16 g/kg/day of Pomeol Bruler, and group 6 received green tea extract (155 mg/kg/day) and ginseng extract (206.6 mg/kg/day). At the end of the treatment, the level of CRP and liver enzymes including aspartate transaminase (AST) and alanine transaminase (ALT) were measured.
Results: The level of CRP was significantly reduced in the rats treated with ginseng, green tea, and Pomeol Bruler compared with the control group (P<0.05). The level of AST and ALT did not differ significantly between the ginseng, green tea, Pomeol Bruler, and control groups.
Conclusion: The combined use of ginseng and green tea with Pomeol Breuler for 8 weeks may reduce inflammatory factors but does not affect liver enzymes.
Hasan Tahazadeh , Yaghub Pazhang ,
Volume 24, Issue 2 (7-2022)

Background and Objective: Chronic myeloid leukemia is one of the most well-known types of leukemia. Inflammation is one of the leading causes of cancer; therefore, anti-inflammatory agents are used for reducing and suppressing the growth of cancer cells. Dexamethasone, a cortisol agonist, has anti-inflammatory, anti-tumor, and apoptotic effects. Diclofenac is a cyclooxygenase enzyme inhibitor with anti-inflammatory properties. This study was performed to determine the synergistic effect of diclofenac and dexamethasone on the growth of K562 cancer cells.
Methods: In this descriptive-analytical study, K562 cell line was cultured in RPMI-1640 medium enriched with glutamine, penicillin, and streptomycin. The cytotoxic effects of dexamethasone, diclofenac and their combination (multi-target tracking) were evaluated using MTT assay. Hoechst staining and DNA electrophoresis were carried out to evaluate the occurrence of apoptosis.
Results: Diclofenac, dexamethasone and their combination had cytotoxic effects on the cells at concentrations of 20, 40, 60, and 80 µmol/ml. A significant cytotoxic effect was observed after 72 hours of treatment with different concentrations of the drugs (P<0.05). Hoechst staining showed that DNA fragmentation was increased in the treated cells. DNA electrophoresis also showed induction of apoptosis by diclofenac, dexamethasone, and their combination.
Conclusion: The combination of diclofenac and dexamethasone at concentration of 20 µmol/ml is more effective in inducing apoptosis in K562 cells compared with each drug alone.

Fahimeh Khodabandeh Shahraki , Mojtaba Ranjbar , Mostafa Govahi , Majid Tafrihi ,
Volume 24, Issue 4 (12-2022)

Background and Objective: Medicinal plants contain a high level of antioxidant compounds such as flavonoids, phenolic, carotenoids, and tannins, which can be used to eliminate excess free radicals in the body. This study aimed to determine the total phenolic and flavonoid content and to investigate the antioxidant and antibacterial effects of Berberis integerrima and Graminifolius tragopogon methanolic extracts on some Gram-positive and Gram-negative microorganisms.
Methods: In this descriptive-analytical study, methanolic extracts of B. integerrima and G. tragopogon were prepared using 80% methanol. Total phenol and flavonoid contents were determined by Folin–Ciocalteu and aluminum chloride colorimetric methods, respectively. The antioxidant capacity was assessed by 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging activity and reducing power methods. The antibacterial activity of the extracts of B. integerrima and G. tragopogon on Escherichia coli, Bacillus subtilis, Listeria monocytogenes, Staphylococcus aureus, and Salmonella typhimurium were determined by the disk diffusion method. Butylated hydroxytoluene and ciprofloxacin were used as positive controls for antioxidant activity and bacterial strains, respectively.
Results: Total phenol and flavonoid compounds in the extracts of B. integerrima and G. tragopogon were 46.90±0.70 and 22.63±0.59 mg gallic acid per gram of extract and 5.61±0.01 and 46.74±0.81 mg quercetin per gram of extract, respectively. The extracts of B. integerrima and G. tragopogon showed significant antibacterial activity. B. subtilis and S. typhimurium showed the highest sensitivity and resistance to the extracts, respectively. Moreover, the extract of B. integerrima had the most potent inhibitory effect on the examined microorganisms.
Conclusion: B. integerrima extract exhibits higher phenolic content, antioxidant properties, and antimicrobial activity than G. tragopogon extract.


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مجله دانشگاه علوم پزشکی گرگان Journal of Gorgan University of Medical Sciences
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