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Showing 9 results for Subject: Epidemiology

Amani F (phd), Kazemnejad A (phd), Habibi R (phd), Hajizadeh E (phd),
Volume 12, Issue 4 (12-2010)

Background and Objective: Mortality rate and causes of death is one of the main components in health planning at each society. This study was done to show the pattern of mortality trends in Iran during 1970-2009. Materials and Methods: In this cross-sectional descriptive study related data to 9740656 deaths registered in National Organization Civil Registration were surveyed and analyzed during 1970-2009. SPSS software and statistical descriptive methods were applied to evaluate the data. Results: 60.4% of all registered death was in rural areas. 61.1% were male. Crude death rate according the current statistics decreased from 13 per 1000 in 1970-75 to 5 per 1000 in 2005-09. Life expectancy with 28.6% increased from 55.2 years in 1970-75 to 71 years in 2005-09. Conclusion: This study showed that all mortality indicators in Iran were lower than other part of the world. There was a general decreasing in infant mortality rate in last three decade. Also the death registry system has been improved during study years.
Arsang Sh (msc), Kazemnejad A (phd), Amani F (phd),
Volume 13, Issue 3 (10-2011)

Background and Objective: The characterization of any disease have important role for the evaluation and control strategy and programming of diseases. This study was done to determine the epidemiology of Tuberculosis in Iran during 2001-08. Materials and Methods: In this descriptive cross sectional study, Annual percentage change (APC), average annual percentage change (AAPC) of Tuberculosis incidence rate, mortality of Tuberculosis, case detection rate, success percentage in Tuberculosis treatment and relapses cases during 2001-08 have been studied in Iran. Linear segmented regression model was used for analysis trend of Tuberculosis and estimate parameters. Results: The trend of Tuberculosis smear positive (SP) incidence rate was reduced in Iran during 2001-08. Anually, 4.1% and 3.6% reduction took place in incidence rate and relapses cases, respectively. Tuberculosis mortality decreased annually by 6.8% and success in case detection increased by 2.5%. The Tuberculosis treatment though AAPC is decreasing by 0.5%. The trend of Tuberculosis are higher among women and in both sexes over 65 years of age. Conclusion: This study showed that trend of SP pulmonary tuberculosis and treatment success rate is decreased, but case detection was increased.
Sarvi F, Mehrabi Y , Abadi Ar , Nasehi M, Payandeh A,
Volume 16, Issue 4 (12-2014)

Background and Objective: Tuberculosis (TB) is the most important cause of death worldwide. The main reason for the increasing global burden of TB are severe poverty and class distinctions between rich and poor population groups in various communities. This study was performed to determine the relationship between socio-economic factors and TB using negative binomial and Poisson regression models. Method: This descriptive - analytic study was conducted on 11320 TB affected patients in Iran during 2010. Data was gathered from the Iranian Ministry of Health and Medical Education. The relationship between the numbers of cases with socio-economic indicators was determined using negative binomial and Poisson models. Fitting models were compared using AIC (Akaike Information Criterion) and BIC (Bayesian Information Criterion). Results: The Poisson regression model showed a significant relationship between the TB mortality rate and socio-economic factors (P<0.05). Negative binomial regression model showed a significant relationship between TB and unemployment, illiterate, immigration and urban residency (P<0.05). Negative binomial regression model showed no relationship between TB and family size, physicians’ ratio to the number of population centers and annual average income. Conclusion: There is a significant impact of socio-economic factors with the number of TB cases. Negative binomial regression model is suitable for accountable data in comparision with Poisson regression model.
Kavianyn N, Mirfazeli A, Aryaie M, Hosseinpour K , Golalipour Mj ,
Volume 17, Issue 4 (12-2015)

Background and Objective: Birth defects are important causes of childhood morbidity and disability. This study was done to determine the incidence and pattern of birth defects in live birth in cities of Golestan province, north of Iran. Methods: This descriptive study was carried out on 92420 live births in 13 hospitals in Golestan province, northern Iran from 21 January 2008 to 20 March 2011. The newborns were examined for the presence of birth defects. Gender, type of birth defects and residency of parents according to city in Golestan province was recorded for each newborn. Results: The incidence rate of birth defects, in Gorgan, Kordkoy, Aliabad and Gonbad was 20.46, 12.53, 10.86, and 8.99 per 1,000 live births, respectively. The incidence rate of birth defects western area (including Kordkoy, Bandargaz and Kordkoy), center (Gorgan, Capital city) and eastern area (including Aliabad, Gonbad, Minodasht and Kalaleh) of Golestan province) was 9.3, 20.46 and 8.79 per 1,000 live births, respectively. Cardiovascular anomaly was the most frequent birth defects. Conclusion: The incidence rate of birth defects varies in diferent area of Golestan provine and overally was lower than the other region in Iran.
Mohammadi R, Aryaie M, Rohani Rasaf M , Mokhayeri Yaser , Dehghan M,
Volume 18, Issue 2 (6-2016)

Background and Objective: Vitiligo is one of the most frequent skin disorders with a prevalence of 1-2% in different populations. Although many theories have been suggested for its pathogenesis, but the most popular hypotheses is the role of autoimmunity in Vitiligo. This study was done to evaluate the thyroid dysfunction and thyroid autoantibodies in patients with Vitiligo.

Methods: This case-control study was carried out on 45 patients with Vitiligo and 45 age- and sex-matched healthy individuals as control group. Age, gender, duration of the disease and type of Vitiligo were collected through a standard questionnaire. Thyroid autoantibodies including thyroglobulin antibody, anti- thyroglobulin and thyroid peroxidase antibody, and anti-TPO thyroid hormones Tetraiodothyronine (T4), Triiodothyronine (T3) and thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) in Vitiligo patients and healthy volunteers were measeared.

Results: Serum level of T4 was significantly reduced in Vitiligo patient compared to controls (P<0.05). Serum level of T4 in 20% of Vitiligo patient and 2.2% of control cases was less the normal level. Anti-TPO in 14 (31.1%) of Vitiligo patient and 6 (13.3%) of controls were higher than normal range (<60 IU/m) (P<0.05). Serum level of anti- thyroglobulin was significantly higher in those with Vitiligo in compared to controls (P<0.05).

Conclusion: This study showed that the thyroid dysfunction particularly hypothyroidism and anti-TPO is more common in Vitiligo patients.

Fallah S, Salarilak Sh, Khalkhali Hr, Nejadrahim R , Nasehi M ,
Volume 18, Issue 2 (6-2016)

Background and Objective: Tuberculosis (TB) is the main cause of death in the world. Half of the patient eventually will die during first 5-year of infection if they do not receive suitable treatment. According to WHO’s report, treatment success in Iran is lower than the regional and global mean. This study was conducted to identify the effective factors of treatment failure among tuberculosis patient in golestan province- Iran.

Methods: This cross- sectional study was conducted on 331 new smear positive tuberculosis patients that detected in TB laboratory in in golestan province-north of Iran during 2014. Inclusion criteria included weight more than 30kg, age greater than 13 years, diabetes, immune deficiency, liver or kidney diseases. Patients were treated according to a protocol for a period of two months on the DOTS strategy. The criterion of treatment outcome was sputum smear at the end of the second month of treatment. The effect of gender, medication regiment, age, weight, smoking, addiction and severity of smear basilli load on treatment outcome was assessed.

Results: 50.8% and 49.2% of patients were treated with combination and separate medicinal regiments, respectively. The conversion rate of smear positive was 67.7% at the end of the second months. According to multivariate logistic regression, the age of the patient (95% CI: 0.96-0.99, OR: 0.98, P=0.017), addiction (95% CI: 1.26-4.54, OR: 2.4, P=0.008), ethnicity (95% CI: 1.86-7.02, OR: 3.62, P=0.0001) and diagnostic smear bacilli load (P<0.0001) were the important effective variables.

Conclusion: The success of two months treatment was fairly low and the important factors on treatment success during the intensive phase were patient age, smoking, addiction and diagnostic smear bacilli load.

A Aminzadeh , M Ramzanpoor , A Molaarazi , F Ghasemi Kebria , Gh Roshandel ,
Volume 19, Issue 3 (10-2017)

Background and Objective: Golestan province in north of Iran is known as a high risk area for cancers. Differences in climatic characteristics including rainfall, temperature and humidity may affect the diet, types of vegetation and lifestyle of residents in this area. The aim of this study was to determine the relationship between rainfall and temperature with the incidence of cancer in Golestan province, north of Iran.
Methods: In this descriptive-analytic study, climatological data and Data of cancer incidence in Golestan province, north of Iran were collected during 2005 and 2010.
Results: Higher incidence of cancers was seen in areas with dried climate including Eastern parts of the province and the Turkmen sahra (P<0.05). A significant negative correlation was found between the rainfall and the incidence of esophageal cancer (r=-0.64, P<0.04). The average rainfall was significantly lower in high-risk area for esophageal cancer than in low-risk area (P<0.05). The incidence of gastric cancers was significantly higher in dry climate than humid climates (P<0.05). The incidence of esophageal and intestinal cancers was non-significantly higher in dry climate than humid climates. The incidence of breast cancer was non-significantly lower in dry climate than humid climates.
Conclusion: This study showed that higher incidence of cancers in dry climates when compared with humid climates. Also, environmental factors may play a role in high incidence rate of cancers in this area.
Hamidreza Khorshidi , Sajjad Daneshyar, Zeynab Sadat Eslami , Abbas Moradi ,
Volume 21, Issue 2 (7-2019)

Background and Objective: Trauma is the third cause of death and the main cause of disability in Iran. Children are more susceptible to trauma due to physiological conditions and the growth process. This study was done to evaluate the epidemiolog of pediatric trauma in Hamedan, Iran during 2016-2017.

Methods: This descriptive-analytical study was done on 482 traumatic children (330 boys, 152 girls) at the age of 0 to 14 years whom referred to Besat Hospital in Hamedan, Iran during April 2016 to March 2017. Age, gender, season, type of troma and the outcome of trouma were recorded for each subject.

Results: The highest rate of trauma was observed between the ages of 7-14 years old (40.5%). The rate of trauma was significantly higher in boys than the girls (P<0.05). The most rate of trauma occured in summer (36.9%). The most common, place, cause, type, region of traumas were home (44%), falling down (53%), fracture (35%), and region (41%) respectively. Regarding the subsequence of discharge of subjects, 10 deaths and 42 disabilities after trauma were observed.

Conclusion: Regarding the most common type and place of accidents, providing safety at home and knowledge of parents are nesscery for preventing of pediatric teruma in Iran.

Siamak Razaei, Mohammad Hossein Taziki, Nasser Behnampour , Reza Shahsavani , Seyyed Shfie Shafiepour ,
Volume 22, Issue 1 (3-2020)

Background and Objective: Due to high incidence and mortality of gasteric cancer and important of clinical symptoms to early diagnosis and tertment; this stady was done to determine the survival rate of gasteric cancer in Golestan provience (north of Iran).
Methods: This retrospective cohort stady was done on 131 patients (77.9% males and 22.1% females) with adeno carcinoma gasteric cancer wich diagosed during 2007-09 in northern Iran. Age, sex, job, nationality and tribe clincal presentation kind of treatment food regiemns, survival collected from archive. In cases whom nesacery data completed with telophone calling or face to face interview. Survival rate of patients for 1, 3 and 5 years were determined using caplan Mayer method.
Results: First symptom in 31.3% of patients was abdominl pain and distance between the first symptom and diagnosis was 1-14 months. 34.4% of patient did not receive any treatment. Survivial rate for 1, 3 and 5 years was 37.4%, 13% and 6.1%, respectively. Age, gender and ethnicity did not not altere survival rate but type of treatment had significant relation to survival rate (P<0.05).
Conclusion: The diagnosis of gasteric cancer in early stage and surgical treatment can help a better survival rate in patients with adeno carcinoma gasteric cancer in northern Iran.

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مجله دانشگاه علوم پزشکی گرگان Journal of Gorgan University of Medical Sciences
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