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Volume 7, Issue 1 (8-2010)

Background and Objective: The pregnancy period has been conceptualized as a time of vulnerability for the women who should adjust to new difficulties and concerns.The present study aimed at determining the mental health status of pregnant women. Material and Methods: In this descriptive study, 315 pregnant women covered by Shahinshahr health care centers were assessed. We used stratified sampling method for choosing health care centers and allocated the participants by using a sampling fraction in each of the centers. The instrument was standard questionnaire of GHQ.Then the data were analyzed by Chi Square (SPSS soft ware). Results: the findings show that 44.8% of pregnant women are suspected to have mental disorders, including social dysfunction (26%), anxiety disorder (18.26%), somatization disorder (17.5%) and depressive disorder (16%).There is no significant difference between mental health of pregnant women and their demogeraghic findings (P>0.05). Conclusion: Based on the results, the mental health in pregnant women is not satisfactory, therefore it is important for primary care providers to be aware of changes in mental health status of pregnant women to help them promote their mental health.
Tahmineh Salehian, Faranak Safdari, Samaneh Jahantighi,
Volume 7, Issue 1 (8-2010)

Background and Objective: Labor pain is a severe pain and the most well-known one. When the pain is not relieved, it leads to some adverse effects such as the increase of cardiac output, blood pressure, respiratory rate, oxygen consumption, and catecholamine levels. All of them can have a harmful effect on both mother and infant. Pain during labor is accompanied by fear, which makes slow the progress of labor. In many countries, because the side effects of the drugs can cause adverse effects on women and their infants, analgesic medications may not be given. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of Entonox on labor pain and outcome of delivery in primiparous women in Iranshahr, Iran (2009). 
 Material and Methods: In this study , in order to determine the effect of Entonox on labor pain and outcome of delivery, 100 primiparous women were randomly assigned to two equivalent groups (n = 50): case and control group . Data were collected by a questionnaire. Labor pain was measured seven times by using a (visual-analogue scale). The length of delivery time was calculated in two stages: from four centimeter cervical dilatation to full cervical dilatation, and from full cervical dilatation to the delivery. 
Results: There is a significant difference between the severity of the pain in two groups (P<0.05), But there is no significant difference between the duration of the active phase and the second phase of the labor. There is no significant difference between the first and fifth minute Apgar Scoring between two groups (P<0.05). No atony is observed in the subjects. Sixty-six percent of case group and 42% of control group express that they have satisfaction from their delivery. 
Conclusion: The findings suggest that Entonox can be effective intervention to decrease pain during labour.

Mr Hamid Hojjati, Mr Seyyed Hamid Sharifnia, Mr Mohsen Mobasheri, Mis Golbahar Akhoondzadeh,
Volume 9, Issue 1 (8-2012)

  Background and Objective : Electroconvulsive Therapy is a psychiatric treatment in which a group of professions including anesthesia, psychiatry and nursing are needed. One of the most important nursing cares is patient education, especially about having temporary cognitive impairment occurred after ECT. This study investigated the effect of training on cognitive status of patients undertaken ECT.

  Material and Methods : This pre-experimental study was conducted on 74 patients, first treated with electroconvulsive therapy, who were placed randomly in two equal groups of case and control . In case group, we used pamphlet, images and lecture to give information. Patients’ cognitive status was assessed before ECT and twenty-four hours after the first, third and sixth sessions. The data was collected by a questionnaire called MMSE cognitive status and analyzed by Repeated measurement and t-test.

  Results: There is significant difference between cognitive status of case and controls­ (p > 0/01) 24 hours after the first and third treatment session s , but no changes for sixth session.

  Conclusion: lack of knowledge results in fear and disturbances, which in turn leads to exacerbating of cognitive problems. Thus, nurses are required to give the patients adequate information before ECT .

  Keywords: Education , Electroconvulsive therapy, Cognitive status

Esmaeil Mohammadnejad, Seyyedeh Roghayeh Ehsani, Amir Salari, Azam Sajjadi, Ayeshe Hajiesmaeelpour,
Volume 10, Issue 1 (4-2013)

  Background and Objective : Drug administration is considered an important aspect of patient care process and reporting the errors is needed to maintain safety. We aimed to investigate “Perspectives of Nurses about refusing to report the medication errors in Emergency Ward”.

  Material and Methods :­ In this descriptive study, 94 Emergency nurses were recruited by census in 2011-2012. The instrument was a researcher-made questionnaire including demographic data and questions related to the causes and factors affecting the reporting of medication errors. Using SPSS-16 software, the data was analyzed by applying descriptive and inferential statistics.

  Results: The nurses who did not report medication errors are 72%. The most common type of medication errors are infusion rate(33.3%) and wrong- drug dosage (23.8%). The most important reasons of medication errors are shortage of nursing staff (47.6%) and lack of pharmacological information (30.9%). Most common reasons for refusing to report the medication errors ­­are fear of its negative effect on financial advantages, inappropriate or negative attitude of managers toward reporting errors and lack of importance of ­reporting from nurses י perspective.

  Conclusion: Considering the high rate of refusing ­to report­,­ it is needed to be created ­some appropriate conditions ­to enhance­ the rate of reporting and removing the ­barriers. Nursing managers should have positive reaction to nurses’ reporting.


Fouzieh Bakhsha, Solmaz Halakou , Seyed Yaghoub Jafari, Zahra Yousefi, Mohammad Aryaee,
Volume 15, Issue 2 (7-2018)

Introduction: Surgery and anesthesia are the common practice for anesthetist on the one hand and very worrying for the patient and his family on the other. This fear can have potentially dangerous consequences. The aim of this study was to determine the relationship between the awareness and fear of patients and their companions towards anesthesia.
Methods: The present study employed a descriptive-analytic design. The instrument was a questionnaire with 38 items consisting of 20 items for fear of anesthesia, 13 items for awareness of anesthesia, and 3 items for the role of anesthesia personnel. The research population included patients undergoing surgery and their companions. The sample population was selected using non-random sampling. Data was analyzed using SPSS software version 16.
Results: In this study, 328 patients and 325 patients' companions (n = 653) were enrolled. The mean score of fear of anesthesia for patients and their companions was 77.56 ± 20.15 and 82.56 ± 20.51, respectively. The mean score of anesthesia awareness for patients and their companions was 6.27 ± 2.33, 33.6 ± 2.86, respectively. No significant correlation was found between fear and anesthesia awareness among patients.
Conclusion: The results of the study showed that patients and their companions had a relatively high degree of fear towards anesthesia and did not have enough awareness about anesthesia and its related factors. Therefore, it seems that provision of educational and anesthetic counseling before surgery can be very helpful in order to improve the conditions.
Keywords: Anesthesia, Patient, Fear, awareness
Houri Alijani, Narjes Sadat Borghei, Naser Behnampour,
Volume 16, Issue 1 (1-2019)

Background and objectives: Fear and anxiety during pregnancy will have a great impact on the mental health of the mother and the fetus, These conditions may be due to fear of Childbirth, which can exacerbate sense of pain, increase the amount of pain, anxiety, distress, discomfort and disability. Therefore, in addition to measuring the amount of fear of childbirth, using the Wijma Questionnaire (version A), we decided to evaluate the factors affecting on it.
Methods: This descriptive-analytic study was performed on 211 eligible mothers in health centers of Gorgan, Iran, in the second six months of 1396, by simple sampling. The Data was collected by Wijma Maternity Wear Questionnaire (A) and analyzed by means of SPSS software version 18 using Fisher and Kruskal Wallis tests at a significance level of 0.05.
Results: the range of maternal fear of childbirth scores was from 14 to 120 with a mean of 61.75 and a standard deviation of 22.99. About 77.2% of mothers had a mild or moderate, 18.5% had clinical and 4.3% had severe fear of childbirth. In this study, the pregnant woman’s and her husband’s job, as well as husband's level of education, were identified as the most important influencing factor on the fear of childbirth.
Conclusion: According to this study, 18.5% of the Nulliparous mothers had clinical and 4.3% had severe fear of Childbirth; therefore, in order to promote the pregnant mother’s mental health, new strategies should be adopted to reduce this fear. In addition, knowing the factors affecting this fear will help us to plan and implement strategies to deal with the fear of childbirth more accurately.

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